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英語應試填空解析

2018-06-26

填空題常考結構

一、主句單一原則

任何一個句子中只可能有一個主句。

做題時考生需要首先判斷原題中已經給出的句子結構,如果已經有一個主句,那么就絕對不能夠再出現另一個主句,除非中間有連接詞進行聯系。

1--, work songs often exhibit the song culture of a people in a fundamental form.

(A) They occur where they are

(B) Occuring where

(C) Where they occur

(D) Where do they occur

分析:空格后面是一個主句,(A)為帶有從句的主句,空格后又是主句,有兩個主句一定錯。

C為地點狀語從句,正確(勞動歌曲發生的地方)。

2:--Indiana, is in a rich farming and dairy area, it is primarily a diversified industrial center

(A) Fort Wayne

(B) Although Fort Wayne

(C) For wayne is in

(D) Fort Wayne, in

分析:空格后有兩個謂語動詞但中間沒有連接詞,由此可知,最后一句話是一個主句,空格處應該有從句引導詞,四個選項中只有(B)中although能引導從句,故選(B)。

二、謂語動詞專一原則

任何一個句子只可能存在一個謂語動詞。

句子中不可能沒有謂語動詞,也不能多于一個謂語動詞(除非中間存在連接詞)。

1:William Walker's mural, “Wall of Respect,”

-----an outdoor wall in Chicago, deals with

social issues.

(A) covers

(B) covers it

(C) which covers

(D) which it covers

分析:空格后的deals with 是謂語動詞,A, B是謂語形式, 和deals with 之間沒有連接詞,可先排除; D 中的it多余,因為在定語從句中which已經作了主語;C構成正確的定語從句

2In copper engravings and etchings, -----caused

by the edges of the plate is clearly visible on

the paper.

(A) the impression is

(B) if the impression is

(C) impressions

(D) the impression

分析:題目中的is是謂語,A,B中是謂語重復。C為復數名詞,與后面的謂語動詞is的數不一致,故也排除。因此選擇D,caused.... 修飾impression

三、平行結構

技巧:如果填空題中空格的后面有and, 或者and后面有空格,那么這道題目一定是考察平行結構。

填空題中平行結構出現的形式是:

A and B,

A , B,andC

1The technique of recording, classifying, and--

is known as accounting.

(A) an enterprise's transactions summary

(B) the summarizing of an enterprise's

transactions

(C) transactions of an enterprise are

summarized

(D) summarizing the transactions of an

enterprise

分析:空格的后面是and, 一般考平行結構,空格處缺與前面recording、classifying并列的動名詞。

四個選項中只有(D)符合條件,故選(D)。

2Louis T. Wright, a surgeon, developed

ingenious orthopedic braces, --, and

supervised the first use of Aureomycin on

human patients.

(A) treating skull fractures that he pioneered in

(B) pioneered in treating skull fractures

(C) which pioneered in treating skull fractures

(D) he was a pioneer in the treatment of skull

fractures

分析:空格后面是and, 空格處缺少和developed、supervised平行的謂語動詞,因此選擇(B)。

四、賓語從句結構

賓語從句的引導詞在前面的主從復合句中已經提到。

這里指出的是填空題中關于賓語從句考的最多的兩個結構:

state(陳述,表明)+that

indicate(指明,表明)+that

1The quantum theory states --, such as light,

is given off and absorbed in tiny definite

units called quanta or photons.

(A) energy that

(B) that it is energy

(C) it is energy

(D) that energy

分析:空格前的謂語動詞states一般接關系連詞that引導的賓語從句,故首先排除C。空格后已有謂語動詞,空格不應再出現謂語動詞,因此D正確。

2Studies of the gravity field of the Earth

indicate--yield when unusual weight is

placed on them.

(A) although its crust and mantle

(B) its crust and mantle to

(C) that its crust and mantle

(D) for its crust and mantle to

分析:空格處顯然缺謂語動詞indicate的賓語。(A)和(D)不能作賓語,可首先排除。(B)使句子結構混亂、語義不清,因此選擇(D),構成賓語從句。

五、介詞+ which結構

許多同學在選擇which還是介詞+which上總是不太明白,這里有一個技巧可以告訴大家。

“which”后面一定加一個缺主語或者賓語的句子,

因為“which”在這個句子中作了賓語或者主語成分。

“介詞+ which”后面則跟一個完整的句子,

因為”介詞+which”整個結構在定語從句中作狀語。

1In the United States, a primary election is

a method ---- voters select the nominees

for public office.

(A) that

(B)by which

(C)is that

(D)by those

分析:空格前后都是句子,因此缺從句引導詞或連接詞,首先排除C和D。

A能夠引導從句,但是根據題意,修飾method是不通的。

B是介詞+which, 引導定語從句,(大選是一種方法,根據這個方法,選民怎么….);正確

2:Croquet is a popular lawn game ------ players

hit wooden balls through wire arches called

wickers.

(A) when

(B) which

(C) is when

(D) in which

分析:空格前后都是完整的句子,空格處缺定語從句引導詞,由此首先排除(A)和(C)。但是到底是選擇B還是D,則看從句,從句是完整的句子,那么一定選擇D, 關系代詞which 前應該有介詞。

六、in that結構

在表示“原因”概念的引導詞中,

because of +名詞,

consequently是副詞

而“in that”是原因狀語的引導詞。

1Mercury differs from other industrial metals

---- it is a liquid.

(A) whereas

(B) in that

(C) because of

(D) consequently

分析:空格前后都是完整的句子,空格處顯然缺從句引導詞。C、D不能引導從句,可以首先排除。

根據題意,兩個句子之間是因果關系而不是對比關系,故選(B)。in that為復合連詞,用來引導原因狀語從句。

2Hovercraft, or air-cushion vehicles, are unusual

-- travel over land and water on a layer of air.

(A)they

(B)in they

(C)that they

(D)in that they

分析:空格處缺從句引導詞和從句主語。A和B缺從句引導詞,首先被排除。C一般作賓語從句或定語從句,而句中需要的是狀語從句,故也排除。D中in that為連詞,引導表原因的狀語從句,符合題意(氣墊船之所以不同,是因為……),故選D。

這里我們再重申一下,如果選項中出現“介詞+which”或者“in that”,那么首先考慮這個選項,如果后面使用的是完整的句子結構,那么這個選項就一定是答案。這種題目平時出現的不多,但是要考的話一定就是重點。

3Emily Dickinson's garden was a place ------

great inspiration for her poems.

(A) that she drew

(B) by drawing her

(C) from which she drew

(D) drawn from which

分析:首先看選項C,“介詞+which”, 而后面是she drew great inspiration for her poems.是一個完整句子,那么選項C就是答案。

七、what結構

what結構在95.8以后的新題中考的非常多,記住一點:

what=the thing that

1The chief foods eaten in any country depend

largely on ----- best in its climate and soil.

(A) it grows

(B) what grows

(C) does it grow

(D) what does it grow

分析:空格前有depend on這個短語,四個選項都是句子,故可判斷出空格處為賓語從句。A和C沒有從句引導詞,故排除,(D)的語序有問題,從句不能用特殊疑問句的倒裝形式,故(B)正確。

2During the eighteenth century, Little Turtle

was chief of the Miami tribe whose territory

became----is now Indiana and Ohio.

(A) there

(B) where

(C) that

(D) what

分析:空格處缺的詞既要引導從句又要作從句主語。四個選項中只有D符合條件。

八、同位語結構

同位語考試形式一:名詞作主語,主語同位語

___, __ _, ___ (注意是兩個逗號)

1The tongue , -----, is an important aid in chewing

and swallowing .

(A) is the chief organ of taste

(B) tasting the organ chiefly

(C) the chief organ of taste

(D) the organ chiefly tastes

分析:空格處顯然缺定語或同位語。句中已有謂語動詞is, 故先排除A和D。(B)不合題意,故也可排除。(C)是名詞短語,適合作主語的同位語,使句子完整,句意正確,故選(C)。

同位語考試形式二:名詞作主語,后面的名詞是主語同位語,解釋說明后面的名詞

___, ___ (注意是一個逗號)

2A prolific writer of prose and verse, ----of

Native Americans in her novel, Century of

Dishonor.

(A) Helen Hunt Jackson took up the cause

(B) the cause taken up by Helen Hunt Jackson

(C) was Helen Hunt Jackson's cause

(D) the cause that Helen Hunt Jackson took up.

分析:空格前為名詞短語,空格后為介詞短語,空格處明顯缺主語和謂語動詞。根據空格前名詞短語的意思判斷,主語應該是人名而不是指物的名詞,故選(A)。

3Often very annoying weeds ,-----and act as

hosts to many insect pests.

(A) that crowd out less hardy plants than

goldenrods

(B) crowding out less hardy plants by goldenrods

(C) the goldenrod's crowding out of less hardy

plants

(D) goldenrods crowd out less hardy plants

分析:空格后面是and, 句中缺少與and并列的謂語動詞。A只有從句沒有主句; B,C分別是分詞和名詞短語, 無法與動詞act并列; D 包含主語的同位語goldenrods和謂語動詞crowd。

同位語考試形式三:主謂賓后面出現一個名詞,那么名詞可以作賓語或者表語的同位語

4An Olympic marathon is 26 miles and 385

yards, approximately ---- from Marathon to

Athens.

(A) the distance is

(B) that the distance is

(C) is that the distance

(D) the distance

分析:逗號前為完整的句子,后面如果再接句子一定要有連接詞或者從句引導詞。A、B、C均為主謂結構,但都沒有從句引導詞,故排除。D是名詞短語作表語同位語,故選(D)。

九、比較結構

比較結構中要注意兩點:1、倒裝性;2、對稱性

1Western Nebraska generally receives less

snow than --eastern Nebraska.

(A) does

(B) in

(C) it does in

(D) in it does

分析:than引導比較狀語從句,空格后面是個專有名詞,肯定是比較從句的主語,空格處明顯缺從句的謂語動詞,只有(A)符合條件,故選(A)。注意than eastern Nebraska does 是正確的語序,但是原文中使用了倒裝;在比較結構的后面部分中,如果比較從句的主語長,謂語動詞短,動詞可放到主語前面進行到裝。

2Hot objects emit----- do cold objects.

(A) rays more than infrared

(B) rays are more infrared than

(C) more than infrared rays

(D) more infrared rays than

分析:emit為及物動詞,空格處缺賓語和引導比較從句的than, 只有(D)符合條件。注意空格后為倒裝形式,do代替emit以避免重復。此題為常考的句子結構。

比較結構中還需要注意相互比較的必須屬于同一種事物

3The activities of the international marketing

researcher are frequently much broader than ----.

(A) the domestic marketer has

(B) the domestic marketer does

(C) those of the domestic marketer

(D) that which has the domestic marketer

分析:本題還是考查比較句,由于謂語動詞是系動詞are, 故先排除與其不對應的以has和does結尾的(A)和(B)。選項D則語義不清,也可排除。C中those代替前面提到的activities以避免重復,those一定要具備,因為只有這樣才能滿足比較的都是activities,謂語動詞are因與主句謂語動詞相同而被省略,因此C為正確答案。

4The annual worth of Utah's manufacturing

is greater than --.

(A) that of its mining and farming combined

(B) mining and farming combination

(C) that mining and farming combined

(D) of its combination mining and farming

分析:本題為比較句,一般來說,比較的雙方應屬于同一類事物。句中主語顯然是比較的一方,而空格處應是與之相對應的另一方。(B)、(C)、(D)均無法與the annual worth相對應,故可以排除。(A)中代詞that代替 the annual worth, 是英語中常見的避免重復的用法,故選(A)。

十、定語從句省略結構

關系代詞在定語從句中做賓語時可以省略

1Most crocodiles will eat anything----capture

and overpower.

(A) can

(B) they can

(C) which can

(D) and

分析:空格前是個完整句子,空格后是兩個并列的及物動詞,后面卻沒有賓語,由此可推斷出空格處缺能作從句賓語的從句引導詞和從句主語。(A)、(D)沒有從句引導詞,可首先排除。(C)有從句引導詞,也可作從句的賓語,卻沒有從句主語。正確答案(B)看似沒有從句引導詞,實際上是省略了引導詞that,故選(B)。that they can capture, that引導定語從句在句子中做capture的賓語。

2A majority of people in the United States can

get all the calcium their bodies----from the

food they eat.

(A) require

(B) requires

(C) requiring

(D)to require

分析:此題顯然缺從句謂語動詞,故首先排除(C)和(D)。(B)為第三人稱單數形式,與主語bodies相矛盾,故也可排除,因此選擇A。

their bodies require from the food they eat是定語從句修飾calcium, 省略了that; 實際上they eat也是定語從句省略了that修飾the food

“介詞+名詞”在定語從句中做表語時,關系代詞和be動詞可以同時省略,剩下的形容詞短語做名詞的后置定語。

3To produceone pound of honey , a colony of

A

beesmust fly a distanceequalsto twicearound

B C D

the world.

分析:句子中實際上是省略了that is, a distance that is equal to, 因此equals to 應該改為equal to

4A neutron starformswhena starmuch more massive

A B C

than the Sun dies andexploded.

D

分析:句中省略了which is, a star which is much more

十一、狀語從句省略結構

Metals expand when they are heated.

Metals expand 是主句;when they are heated 是狀語從句。但是這個狀語從句中可以省略掉they are, 句子變成:Metals expand when heated. 但是并不是所有的狀語從句都可以這么省略。這種省略從句主語的方式理論上需要滿足以下兩個條件:

第一、從句主語和主句主語必須保持一致;

第二、從句的謂語必須是be動詞,主語和be動詞同進同出,

比如上面的they和are要么同時省略,要么同時保留。

1Although----rigid, bones exhibit a degree of

elasticity that enables the skeleton to withstand

considerable impact.

(A) apparently

(B) are apparently

(C) apparently their

(D) are they apparently

分析:連詞although通常引導主謂完整的狀語從句,當從句主語與主句主語相同、從句謂語又為系表結構時,則可省略主語和連系動詞,故正確答案為(A)。Although apparently rigid = Although bones are apparently rigid, 注意bones和are必須同時省略。

因此,我們從上面的例題中來分析一下填空題中狀語從句省略以后的形式:

though, although, even thought, while, If, when等為引導狀語從句的詞;

這些詞后面一定+形容詞(分詞),主句(注意逗號的后面是主句,前面是從句)

2All marble is composed of crystals of the

minerals calcite or dolomite, ----, are perfectly

white.

(A) when, pure which

(B) when, which pure

(C) which, pure when

(D) which, when pure

分析:空格前是個完整的句子,空格后是系表結構,空格處顯然缺非限定性定語從句的引導詞兼作從句主語。(A)、(B)不引導非限定性定語從句,可首先排除。(C)中的pure和when位置錯了,故選(D)。注意when pure是插入語,同時也是省略用法when they are pure;which are perfectly white, 狀語從句省略結構,

3--relatively costly, the diesel engine

is highly efficient and needs servicing

infrequently

(A) Even

(B) It is

(C) Even though

(D) There is

分析:B和D填入后,都是構成兩個主句,不對;Even though則引導狀語從句,even though it is, 這里it is 已經省略。

十二、動詞ing+名詞的復數作主語結構

這是一個比較難的結構,因為許多同學經常混淆動名詞和現在分詞。

現在分詞相當于形容詞,和后面的名詞是修飾與被修飾的關系;

動名詞是相當于具有動詞特征的名詞,和后面的名詞是動賓關系。

那么如何在句子中判斷動名詞和現在分詞呢?我們來看兩個例子:

Doing exercises is a good habit. 做練習是一個好習慣。

The starring troops have to surrender.

第一個句子強調的是做,而不是練習,不能說練習是一個好習慣,只能說做練習是一個好習慣,因此do是中心詞,它和后面的名詞是動賓關系,那么這個do就是動名詞;

第二個句子說挨餓的軍隊必須投降,是軍隊投降,而不是挨餓要投降,因此中心詞是troop,starring是來修飾troop的,因此starring是現在分詞。

在“動詞ing+名詞的復數”作主語結構的句子中,謂語動詞是系動詞is

1--by transferring the blame to others is often

called scapegoating.

(A) Eliminate problems

(B) The eliminated problems(被消除的問題)

(C) Eliminating problems

(D) Problems are eliminated

分析:空格處缺主語。(A)不能作主語,(B)的名詞為復數,與后面謂語動詞相矛盾,(D)使句子出現兩個謂語,故排除。(C)構成動名詞短語,可作句中主語,故選(C)。這個題目的意思是通過把責任轉嫁給別人,這種消除問題的方式,通常叫做替罪羊。

2--wooden buildings helps to protect them

from damage due to weather.

(A) Painting

(B) Painted

(C) The paint

(D) By painting

分析:從謂語動詞helps可判斷出主語不可能為buildings, 因為主謂語在數上不一致,故空格處缺構成單數的詞。四個選項中只有動名詞painting符合這一條件,故選(A)。(B)構成復數名詞短語,(C)無法與后面的名詞連接,(D)構成介詞短語,不能作主語,三個選項都可排除。

painted wooden buildings 被油漆的房子,中心詞是buildings, 后面help不能用單數

painting wooden buildings油漆房子這件事情,中心詞是painting

3Scientists think -- helps some tree to

conserve water in the winter.

(A) when losing leaves

(B) leaves are lost

(C) that losing leaves

(D) the leaves losing

分析:這道題目大家都能夠選擇C, 但是我們必須徹底理解C為什么正確,think that后面是賓語從句。losing是及物動詞,丟棄葉子幫助樹來保持水分,要注意不是樹葉來幫助保持水分,而是丟棄樹葉這個動作來保持水分。丟棄葉子是樹主動丟棄,因此losing是動名詞。

十三、make結構

make結構即為:make +sth.(賓語) +possible+(賓語補足語)

共有三種形式:

make it possible+to do

make it possible+that引導的從句

make possible sth (這個sth一定很長,它后面有一個后置定語)

做題技巧:

如果possible后面有to do 或者that引導的定語從句, 中間一定有it

如果possible后面有名詞,中間一定沒有it

1X-rays are able to pass through objects and

thus make--details that are otherwise

impossible to observe .

(A) it visible

(B) visibly

(C) visible

(D) they are visible

分析:此題考動詞make的一種用法,visible后面有名詞,因此中間不能有it,選擇C;可以看到空格后that引導的是定語從句,visible是賓語補足語,賓語補足語的存在是因為賓語太長了,details是賓語。

2Using many symbols makes--to put a large

amount of information on a single map.

(A) possible

(B) it possible

(C) it is possible

(D) that possible

分析:從四個選項可以判斷出本題考make的一種慣用法。首先排除明顯的錯誤選項:C為句子,卻沒有與主句相連的連詞,D中that后面應有主語并構成結構完整的從句。 由于后面是動詞不定式,因此possible前面一定有it, it作形式賓語,故B正確。

十四、the more …the more…結構

這個結構的意思是“越….越…”,結構一共有三條規則:

1. the more后面的名詞必須使用冠詞或者所有格, 新題專門考這條規則

2. the more 后面的謂語如果是be動詞的話,可以省略,例如上面的例題

3. 第二個the more 后面可以使用倒裝,而第一個后面卻不行

the more, the more其實是原因狀語從句,前面是原因,后面是結果,倒裝句中必須是主句倒裝,從句絕對不能夠倒裝。

1The stronger--magnet, the greater the

number of lines of magnetic force.

(A) of

(B) the

(C) is the

(D) is of the

分析:本題顯然考查”the more … the more…”結構,the more后面的名詞必須使用冠詞或者所有格,因此只能選擇B

2The less the surface of the ground yields to the

weight of the body of a runner, --to the body.

(A) the stress it is greater

(B) greater is the stress

(C) greater stress is

(D) the greater the stress

分析:正確答案為D。此題考the more … the more句型,只有D符合這一句型的要求,故選D。

十五、表示結果的伴隨狀語結構

主謂賓完整的句子后面,如果出現兩個詞,thereby或者thus, 那么這兩個詞后面必須使用現在分詞,表示“從而怎么樣”的意思,這便是表示結果的伴隨狀語結構。但是必須注意并不是thus后面就是加doing,必須是前面一個完整的句子才對。

1A microphone enables asofttoneto beamplified,

A B

thusmaking it possiblethe gentle

C

renditions ofromanticlove songs in a large hall.

D

分析:Possible后面有名詞,那么it應該去掉,thus后面表示結果的伴隨狀語從句,表示從而使得歌曲演唱成為可能。

2The Smithsonian Institution preserves more

than sixty-five million items of scientific,

historical, or artistic interest, --winning the

popular title, “attic of the nation.”

(A) however

(B) thus

(C) and

(D) moreover

分析:逗號前面是個完整的句子,逗號后面是現在分詞短語作狀語表示結果。四個選項中只有thus一詞可直接放在現在分詞前面,故選B。thus 副詞,修飾分詞winning, 伴隨狀語

3Snow aids farmers by keeping heat in the

lower ground levels, thereby--from freezing.

(A) to save the seeds

(B) saving the seeds

(C)which saves the seeds

(D) the seeds saved

分析:thereby和to有意思重復,所以不能夠選擇(A), 后面應該跟現在分詞,答案為B

十六、形容詞最高級省略結構

The crane is the tallest bird of the wading birds.

最高級后面的名詞與范圍名詞重復,可以省略,句子變為The crane is the tallest of the wading birds.

1The crane is--of the wading birds.

(A) the tallest

(B) the tallest that is

(C) which is the tallest

(D) which the tallest is

分析:空格前是主語和謂語,空格后是of引導的介詞短語,空格處明顯缺作表語的名詞或名詞短語。四個選項中只有(A)使句子結構完整,語義清楚,故選(A)。

2. Cowsare saidto bethe leastintelligentlyof

A B C

domesticanimals.

D

分析:改為形容詞,intelligent,intelligently為副詞,不能作表語。

十七、規則動詞過去分詞作定語結構

這里的規則動詞指的是過去式和過去分詞一樣,導致考生看不出句子結構,比如:

program, programmed, programmed

因此判斷這個詞是過去式還是過去分詞就顯得比較重要:

第一步:從邏輯上判斷這個動作是主動還是被動

第二步:如果是被動的話,做謂語前面一定有系動詞be

1--Wupatki National Monument in Arizona

features structures built of red sandstone by

ancestors of the Hopi people.

(A) That the

(B) In the

(C) Around the

(D) The

分析:空格后是結構完整的句子,空格處顯然缺定冠詞the 修飾主語,故選D。A中that引導主語從句,使整個句子變成從句而無主句,B、C構成介詞短語,使句子缺主語,故排除。句子中的built是過去分詞。

2Antibodies --by small, round cells called

lymphocytes and plasma cells.

(A) to be made

(B) making

(C) made

(D) are made

分析:空格前為名詞作主語,空格后是介詞by引導的動作執行者,called是過去分詞作定語,所以句子缺謂語,故選D。A、B、C均為非謂語動詞,故排除。

3Automatons programmed to perform a given

task ------the flexibility and adaptability of

human beings.

(A) without

(B) lack

(C) minus

(D) not having

分析:programmed在句中是過去分詞作名詞后置修飾語,空格處缺謂語動詞。四個選擇答案中只有(B)是可作謂語的動詞,故選(B)。

B, programmed是一個定語,而不是謂語

機器人被編制程序,所以是過去分詞,而不是謂語動詞

十八、邏輯主語結構

在一個完整的句子前面出現現在分詞、過去分詞、或者介詞短語,那么這個句子的主語是前面這三種結構邏輯上的主語。

1Having been served lunch, --.

(A) the problem was discussed by the members

of the committee

(B) the committee members discussed the

problem

(C) it was discussed by the committee

members the problem

(D) a discussion of the problem was make by

the members of the committee

分析:Having been served lunch指被招待了午飯,那么只可能是委員會的成員被招待,而不可能是問題,所以選擇B

2--was not incorporated as a city until

almost two centuries later, in 1834.

(A) Settling Brooklyn, the Dutch

(B) The Dutch settled Brooklyn

(C) Brooklyn was settled by the Dutch

(D) Settled by the Dutch, Brooklyn

分析:空格后面是謂語和狀語,空格處缺主語。Brooklyn表示人或者Dutch表示地方做主語,但是從as a city可知,主語不是人名,而是地名,由此首先排除A。B、C均是句子,不合要求。D符合句法和題意。

3At thirteen --- at a district school near her

home, and when she was fifteen , she saw her

first article in print.

(A) the first teaching position that Mary Jane

Hawes had

(B) the teaching position was Mary Jane

Hawe's first

(C) when Mary Jane Hawes had her first

teaching position

(D) Mary Jane Hawes had her first teaching

position

分析:從并列連詞and 可知,第一個逗號前是一個完整的句子,空格處缺主謂結構,而且主語是一個人名。四個選項中只有D以人名作主語,故選D。

4Even at low levels, --.

(A) the nervous system has produced

detrimental effects by lead

(B) lead's detrimental effects are producing the

nervous system

(C) lead produces detrimental effects on the

nervous system

(D) the detrimental effects produced by lead on

the nervous system

分析:空格前為介詞短語狀語,空格處缺一個完整的句子。A、B結構上似乎完整,但意思不清,D不是完整的句子,故選C。

5The chorus playsa largepartin anyoratorio,linking

A B C

areaswere sungby soloists with segments of choral music.

D

分析:應該把D中的were去掉

十九、復合賓語結構

有些及物動詞+賓語后意思表達不完整,需要再加形容詞或者名詞來補充說明賓語被叫做不完全及物動詞,該形容詞或者名詞叫做賓語補足語。賓語加補足語叫做復合賓語。當賓語和賓補由主動語態變為被動語態,分別變為主語和主補。

We played soccer.

We called him Bob. Bob在這里作賓語補足語

He was called Bob. Bob在這里作主語補足語

下面列出了一些經常要求使用賓補的動詞

make, consider, call, elect, appoint,

例:We appoint him monitor.

We elected him president.

1Poodles were once used as retrievers in duck

hunting , but the American Kennel Club does not

consider them --because they are now primarily

kept as pets.

(A) where sporting dogs

(B) sporting dogs

(C) when sporting dogs

(D) they are sportingdogs

分析:選擇B, them是賓語,sporting dogs賓補

二十、It結構

一、強調句型

It is + 強調部分+that +其余部分

這個句型需要注意幾點:

強調部分+其余部分是一個完整的句子;

強調部分可以強調主語、賓語和狀語,不能強調謂語和定語;

強調人使用who或者that, 其他的只能用that (即使是時間和地點),who 和that絕對不能省略

如果原句是過去時態,強調句型使用it was.,例如:

原句: Ann bought these books last year.

強調賓語:It was these books that Ann bought last year.

強調狀語:It was last year that Ann bought these books.

二、形式主語

It is + 名詞/形容詞+ to do/that 引導的句子

to do/that 引導的句子是真正的主語,it 是形式主語,這是為了避免頭重腳輕。

1It isthe interaction between people ,rather than

A B

the events that occur in their lives ,that are

C

the main focus ofsocialpsychology.

D

分析:Rather than …是插入語,主句是強調句型, it is …that, 主語是interaction, 所以是is

2--an increasing international exchange of

educational films.

(A) It is

(B) There is

(C) Though there is

(D) Although it is

分析:缺少主謂,選擇B, it 用在句子的句首,只可能作強調句型或者形式主語。空格后是一個名詞短語,只有B與之構成完整的句子。A語義不完整,C、D則使整個句子成了讓步從句而缺主句,故都可排除。

二十一、which引導的定語從句結構

which是關系代詞,which后面應該加缺主語或者賓語的句子,

在這個句子中,which要作成分,作主語或者賓語

in which+完整的句子

which在定語從句中作in的賓語,所以不能作后面句子的主語

名詞+of which+謂語動詞

of which來修飾名詞,名詞在定語從句中作主語,所以后面直接跟謂語動詞

1In blank verse--of ten syllables, five of

which are accented.

(A) line consists of each

(B) consists of each line

(C) each line consists

(D) it consists of each line

分析:空格前后均為介詞詞組,逗號后為非限定性定語從句,空格處缺主句主謂成分。A單數名詞line前沒有限定詞,而且語義不清,B沒有主語,D中it 指代不明,所以選C。

five of which are accented表示其中五個要被重讀,of which修飾five, 十個中的五個

2The spiral threads of spider's web have a

sticky substance on them ------ insects.

(A) traps

(B) trap its

(C) which traps

(D) which it traps

分析:空格前為完整的主謂結構,后面是一個名詞,A和B顯然不能與前面的謂語動詞并列,故可以首先排除。D中的代詞it明顯是多余的,故也不對。C為正確選項,其中關系代詞which指代前面的名詞短語a sticky substance。網上有粘狀的物質來誘捕昆蟲。

3Traditionally, ethnographers and linguists

have paidlittle attention to cultural

A

interpretationsgiven tosilence,or tothe types of

B C

social contexts inwhich tendsto occur.

D

分析:D錯,in which后面跟完整句子。In which it, it 指代silence, or to 和第二行的to并列

4After the First World War, the author Anais Nin

became interested in the art movement

known as Surrealism and in psychoanalysis,

both --her novels and short stories.

(A) in which the influence

(B) of which influenced

(C) to have influence

(D) its influence in

分析:第二個逗號前為結構完整的句子,A中有從句引導詞which, 卻沒有謂語動詞,構成不了完整的句子。C中最后一個詞為名詞,無法與后面的名詞短語連接,D構成名詞短語,不合題意,而且名詞influence一般接介詞on, 故三個選項都可排除。B構成一個非限定性定語從句,故選B。

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