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美文賞析

2018-03-10

1.記住該記住的,忘記該忘記的。改變能改變的,接受不能改變的

Remember what should be remembered, and forget what should be forgotten. Alter what is changeable, and accept what is mutable.

2.能沖刷一切的除了眼淚,就是時間,以時間來推移感情,時間越長,沖突越淡,仿佛不斷稀釋的茶

Apart from tears, only time could wear everything away. While feeling is being processed by time, conflicts would be reconciled as time goes by, just like a cup of tea that is being continuously diluted.

3.怨言是上天得至人類最大的供物,也是人類禱告中最真誠的部分

Complaints are the greatest offerings that God obtains from human beings, as well as the most faithful prayers human beings might utter to God.

4.智慧的代價是矛盾。這是人生對人生觀開的玩笑。

Wisdom appears in contradiction to itself, which is a trick life plays on philosophy of life.

5.世上的姑娘總以為自己是驕傲的公主(除了少數極丑和少數極聰明的姑娘例外)

Girls always look on themselves as proud princesses, with the exception of a small number of either extremely ugly or exceedingly smart ones.

6.如果敵人讓你生氣,那說明你還沒有勝他的把握

It can be inferred that you lack confidence in a victory over your rivals from the fact that you’re irritable against them.

7.如果朋友讓你生氣,那說明你仍然在意他的友情

From that you would get angry with your friends, we can conclude you sitll care about the friendship between you.

8.令狐沖說“有些事情本身我們無法控制,只好控制自己。”可是,他算什么!!

“ Something is out of our control, so we have to command ourselves.“ said Linghu Chong, a known character in a Chinese novel about persons adept in martial arts(武俠小說?). Who is, however, fucking he?

9.我不知道我現在做的哪些是對的,那些是錯的,而當我終于老死的時候我才知道這些。所以我現在所能做的就是盡力做好每一件事,然后等待著老死。

Only till my natural death. could I tell which of what I have been doing is right or wrong, so now I have to try to do well in everything, and then wait to die a natural death.

10.也許有些人很可惡,有些人很卑鄙。而當我設身為他想象的時候,我才知道:他比我還可憐。所以請原諒所有你見過的人,好人或者壞人

Some may be wicked, and some may be despicable. Only when I put myself in their position did I know they are more miserable than I. So forgive all that you have met, no matter what kind of persons they are.

11.魚對水說你看不到我的眼淚,因為我在水里.水說我能感覺到你的眼淚,因為你在我心里。

“You couldn’t see my tears cause I am in the water.“ Fish said to water.

“But I could feel your tears cause you are in me.“ Answered water.

12.快樂要有悲傷作陪,雨過應該就有天晴。如果雨后還是雨,如果憂傷之后還是憂傷.請讓我們從容面對這離別之后的離別。微笑地去尋找一個不可能出現的你!

Happiness is accompanied by sorrow, and it would turn sunny after rain as well. If rain remains after rain and sorrow remains after sorrow, please take those farewells easy, and turn to smilingly look for yourself who is never to appear.

13.死亡教會人一切,如同考試之后公布的結果?雖然恍然大悟,但為時晚矣!

Like the outcome after an exam, death makes us aware of anything, That is, it’s too late to take a tumble.

14.你出生的時候,你哭著,周圍的人笑著;你逝去的時候,你笑著,而周圍的人在哭!

When you were born, you’re crying but lookers-on were smiling. When you are passing away, you’re smiling but lookers-on are crying.

15.男人在結婚前覺得適合自己的女人很少,結婚后覺得適合自己的女人很多

Man might think that few women fit him before his marriage, and contrarily when they get married.

16.于千萬人之中,遇見你所遇見的人;于千萬年之中,時間的無涯荒野里,沒有早一步,也沒有晚一步,剛巧趕上了

Among thousands of people, you meet those you’ve met. Through thousands of years, with the boundlessness of time, you happen to meet them, neither earlier nor a bit too late.

17.每個人都有潛在的能量,只是很容易:被習慣所掩蓋,被時間所迷離,被惰性所消磨.

Everyone has his inherent ability( power or capacity?) which is easily concealed by habbits, blured by time, and eroded by laziness( or inertia?).

18.人生短短幾十年,不要給自己留下了什么遺憾,想笑就笑,想哭就哭,該愛的時候就去愛,無謂壓抑自己

Be sure that you have never had any regrets in your life which only lasts for a few decades. Laugh or cry as you like, and it‘s meaningless to oppress yourself.

19.《和平年代》里的話:當幻想和現實面對時,總是很痛苦的。要么你被痛苦擊倒,要么你把痛苦踩在腳下

While our dream is confronted with the reality, you always feel painful. Just trample on the pain, or you‘ll be beat down by it.

20.真正的愛情是不講究熱鬧不講究排場不講究繁華更不講究嚎頭的

A true love is what doesn‘t strive for busyness, for extravagance, for luxury, and moreover for hokum.

21.生命中,不斷地有人離開或進入。于是,看見的,看不見了;記住的,遺忘了。生命中,不斷地有得到和失落。于是,看不見的,看見了;遺忘的,記住了。然而,看不見的,是不是就等于不存在?記住的,是不是永遠不會消失?

There is someone that is coming or passing away in your life around the clock, so you may lose sight of those seen, and forget those remembered. There is gain and loss in your life, so you may catch sight of those unseen, and remember those forgotten. Nevertheless, doesn‘t the unseen exist for sure? Will the remembered remain for ever?

22.我們確實活得艱難,一要承受種種外部的壓力,更要面對自己內心的困惑。在苦苦掙扎中,如果有人向你投以理解的目光,你會感到一種生命的暖意,或許僅有短暫的一瞥,就足以使我感奮不已。

It‘s true that we have been leading a difficult life, for we need not only to be under various external pressures, but also to be in the face of internal perplexities. You would be affected by the warmth of life if someone gives you an understanding look during your bitter struggle. Even a mere glance would make you moved and inspired.

23.我不去想是否能夠成功,既然選擇了遠方,便只顧風雨兼程;我不去想,身后會不會襲來寒風冷雨,既然目標是地平線,留給世界的只能是背影.

I wouldn‘t care success or failure, for I will only struggle ahead as long as I have been destined to the distance. I wouldn‘t care the difficulties around, for what I can leave on the earth is only their view of my back since I have been marching toward the horizontal.

24.后悔是一種耗費精神的情緒.后悔是比損失更大的損失,比錯誤更大的錯誤.所以不要后悔

Penitence is something that enervates our spirit, causing a greater loss than loss itself and making a bigger mistake than mistake itself, so never regret.

【轉帖】

1.Divine‘s punishments,though slow,are always sure.

天網恢恢,疏而不漏。

2.An act is not a crime unless the law says it is one.

法無明文規定者不為罪。

3.This contract is made of one original and two duplicate originals,all of which are of the same effect.

本合同一式三份,具有同等效力。

4. The law does not concern itself about family trifles.

法律難斷家務事。

5.This document is legally binding.

該文件具有法律約束力。

6. This law is in abeyance.

此法暫緩執行。

7. This law has become a dead letter.

此法已成為一紙空文。

8. This law will go into effect on the day of its promulgation.

本法自公布之日起施行。

9 The court dismissed the action.

法院駁回訴訟。

10. The court ordered the case to be retried.

法院命令重審此案……

11.Giving the killer what he deserves.

予殺人者以應得之罪。

12. Hate the sin but not the sinner.

可恨的是罪行而非罪人。

13.Everyone has the right to freedom of expression.

每個人都享有言論自由。

14. Everyone is equal before the law.

法律面前人人平等。

15. First in time,first in right.

先在權利優先。

16. No rights can rest on one person without a corresponding duty resting on some other person or persons.

沒有無義務的權利。

17. In most civil contexts it does not matter whether negligence is“gross”or“slight”。

在多數民事事項環境中,過失行為是否“嚴重”或“輕微”并不關緊要。

18. Traditionally,firm referred to a partnership,as opposed to a company.

按慣例,firm是指合伙企業,與公司相對。

19.A transaction between two parties ought not to operate to the disadvantage of a third.

合約不約束第三人。

20. An acceptance once given cannot be revoked unless the offeror consents.

除非要約人同意,承諾一經做出即不得撤回。

21. A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.

當事人協商一致即可以變更合同。

22. Any amendments to this contract shall become effective only by a written agreement by Party A and Party B.

對本合同的任何修改,只有經甲、乙雙方簽署書面協議后方能生效。

23. Any annex is the integral part of this contract.

本合同一切附件均為本合同的有效組成部分。

24. Any departure from the terms and conditions of the contract must be advised in writing.

任何與合同條款相背離的地方,都應以書面形式通知。

25. Any failure by a party to carry out all or part of his obligations under the contract shall be considered as a substantial breach.

一方當事人不履行本合同的全部或任何部分義務均應被視為是根本違約。

26. Any party has no right to terminate this contract without another party‘s agreement.

未經另一方當事人同意,任何當事人均無權終止本合同。

27.Examples of void contracts are those entered as a result of misrepresentation,duress or undue influence.

因欺詐、脅迫和乘人之危而簽訂的合同屬于可撤銷合同。

28. If any of the above-mentioned clauses is inconsistent with the following additional clauses,the latter to be taken as authentic.

以上任何條款如與下列附加條款相抵觸,以下列附加條款為準。

29. If there are provisions as otherwise stated in respect to contracts in other laws,such provisions shall be followed.

其他法律對合同另有規定的,應依照這些規定。

30.No consideration,no contract.

合同無對價不成立。

31. Other special terms will be listed bellows.

甲、乙雙方如有特殊約定將在下列另行約定。

32. Party A and B have reached an agreement through friendly consultation to conclude the following contract.

甲、乙雙方,經友好協商一致,訂立本合同。

33. Parties hereto may revise or supplement through negotiation matters not mentioned herein.

本合同如有未盡事宜,雙方可協商修訂或補充。

34. The parties may dissolve the contract upon consensus through consultation.

當事人協商一致,可以解除合同。

35. Counsel must not lead the witness.

律師不得誘導證人。

36. The jury returned a verdict of guilty,and the judge will pass sentence next week.

陪審團裁定有罪,法官將于下周判刑。

37. The jury was unable to reach a unanimous decision.

陪審團未能達成意見一致的裁決。

38.Judgment was entered for the plaintiff.

判決原告勝訴。

39. Now the court is in session.

現在開庭。

40. Order in the court.

法庭內保持肅靜。

41. objection -反對objection overruled——反對駁回

Virtue is like a rich stone, best plain set; and surely virtue is best in a body that is comely, though not of delicate features; and that hath rather dignity of presence than beauty of aspect. Neither is it almost seen, that very beautiful persons are otherwise of great virtue; as if nature were rather busy not to err, than in labor to produce excellency. And therefore they prove accomplished, but not of great spirit; and study rather behavior than virtue.

But this holds not always: for Augustus Caesar, Titus Vespasianus, Philip le Bel of France, Edward the Fourth of England, Alicibiades of Athens, Ismael the Sophy of Persia, were all high and great spirits; and yet the most beautiful men of their times. In beauty, that of favor is more than of color; and that of decent and gracious motion more than that of favor. That is the best part of beauty, which a picture cannot express; no nor the first sight of the life. There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportion. A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert Durer were the more trifler; whereof the one would make a personage by geometrical proportions; the other, by taking the best parts out of divers faces, to make one excellent. Such personages, I think, would please nobody but the painter that made them. Not but I think a painter may make a better face than ever was; but he must do it by a kind of felicity (as a musician that maketh as excellent air in music), and not by rule. A man shall see faces, that if you examine them part by part, you shall find never a good; and yet altogether do well. If it be true that the principal part of beauty is in decent motion, certainly it is no marvel though persons in years seem many times more amiable; pulchrorum autumnus pulcher [beautiful persons have a beautiful autumn]; for no youth can be comely but by pardon, and considering the youth as to make up the comeliness.

Beauty is as summer fruits, which are easy to corrupt, and cannot last; and for the most part it makes a dissolute youth, and an age a little out of countenance; but yet certainly again, if it light well, it make the virtue shine, and vices blush.

談美

王佐良譯

德行猶如寶石,樸素最美;其于人也:則有德者但須形體悅目,不必面貌俊秀,與其貌美,不若氣度恢宏。人不盡知:絕色無大德也;一如自然勞碌終日,但求無過,而無力制成上品。因此美男子有才而無壯志,重行而不重德。但亦不盡然。羅馬大帝奧古斯提與泰特思,法王菲律浦,英王愛德華四世,古雅典之亞西拜提斯,波斯之伊斯邁帝,皆有宏圖壯志而又為當時最美之人也。美不在顏色艷麗而在面目端正,又不盡在面目端正而在舉止文雅合度。美之極致,非圖畫所能表,乍見所能識。舉凡最美之人,其部位比例,必有異于常人之處。阿貝爾與杜勒皆畫家也,其畫人像也,一則按照幾何學之比例,一則集眾臉形之長于一身,二者誰更不智,實難斷言,竊以為此等畫像除畫家本人外,恐無人喜愛也。余不否認畫像之美可以超絕塵寰,但此美必為神筆,而非可依規矩得之者,樂師之譜成名曲亦莫不皆然。人面如逐部細察,往往一無是處,觀其整體則光彩奪目。美之要素既在于舉止,則年長美過年少亦無足怪。古人云:“美者秋日亦美。”年少而著美名,率由寬假,蓋鑒其年事之少,而補其形體之不足也。美者猶如夏日蔬果,易腐難存;要之,年少而美者常無行,年長而美者不免面有慚色。雖然,但須托體得人,則德行因美而益彰,惡行見美而愈愧。

論美

曹明倫譯

善猶如寶石,以鑲嵌自然為美;而善附于美者無疑最美,不過這美者倒不必相貌俊秀,只須氣度端莊,儀態宜人。世人難見絕美者兼而至善,仿佛造物主寧愿專心于不出差錯,也不肯努力創造出美善兼備之上品。故世間美男子多有身軀之完美而無精神之高貴,多注重其行而不注重其德。但此論并非放之四海而皆準,因古羅馬皇帝奧古斯都和韋斯帕蘿、法蘭西國王腓力四世、英格蘭國王愛德華四世、古雅典將軍亞西比德、以及伊朗國王伊思邁爾一世皆為志存高遠者,但也都是當時的冠王美男。至于美女,天生容貌勝過粉黛胭脂,而優雅舉止又勝過天生容貌。優雅之態乃美之極致,非丹青妙筆所能繪之,亦非乍眼一看所能識之。絕色者之形體比例定有異處。世人難斷阿佩利斯和丟勒誰更可笑,后者畫人像總是按幾何比例,前者則將諸多面孔的最美之處匯于一顏。筆者以為除畫家本人之外,此等畫像誰也不會喜歡。雖說筆者認為畫家可以畫出比真顏更美的容貌,但他必須得靠神來之筆,而非憑藉什么規則尺度,這就像音樂家譜寫妙曲得靠靈感一般。世人可見這樣的面龐,若將其五官分而視之則一無是處,但合在一起卻堪稱花容五顏。倘美之要素果真在于儀態之優雅,那長者比少者更美就不足為奇,須知美人之秋亦美。假如不把春青視為優雅得體之補足,年少者多半都難稱俊秀。美貌如夏日鮮果易腐難存,而且它每每使年少者放蕩,并給年長者幾分難堪;但筆者開篇所言仍然不謬,若美貌依附于善者,便會使善舉光彩奪目,使惡行無地自容。

論美

何新譯

美德好比寶石,它在樸素背景的襯托下反而更華麗。同樣,一個打扮并不華貴卻端莊嚴肅而有美德的人是令人肅然起敬的。美貌的人并不都有其他方面的才能。因為造物是吝嗇的,他給了此就不再予彼。所以許多容顏俊秀的人卻一無作為,他們過于追求外形美而放棄了內在美。但這話也不全對,因為奧古斯都、菲斯帕斯、腓力普王、愛德華四世、阿爾西巴底斯、伊斯梅爾等,都既是大丈夫,又是美男子。仔細考究起來,形體之美要勝于顏色之美,而優雅行為之美又勝于形體之美。、最高的美是畫家所無法表現的,因為它是難于直觀的。這是一種奇妙的美。曾經有兩位畫家——阿皮雷斯和丟勒滑稽地認為,可以按照幾何比例,或者通過攝取不同人身上最美的特點,用畫合成一張最完美的人像。其實象這樣畫出來的美人,恐怕只有畫家本人喜歡。美是不能制訂規范的,創造它的常常是機遇,而不是公式。有許多臉型,就它的部分看并不優美,但作為整體卻非常動人。有些老人顯得很可愛,因為他們的作風優雅而美。拉丁諺語說過:“晚秋的秋色是最美好的。”而盡管有的年輕人具有美貌,卻由于缺乏優美的修養而不配得到贊美。美猶如盛夏的水果,是容易腐爛而難保持的。世上有許多美人,他們有過放蕩的青春,卻迎受著愧悔的晚年。因此,把美的形貌與美的德行結合起來吧。只有這樣,美才會放射出真正的光輝。

轉帖】

外貿業務英文書信格式對從事外貿業務人員有很大幫助,本文包括了27種項書信格式,例舉了27種書信范文,英文書信格式大匯總。現把英語書信的具體的書信格及書信范文例舉如下。

1請求建立商業關系的英文書信

Rogers Chemical Supply Co. 10E.22Street Omaha8,Neb Gentlemen: We have obtained your name and address from Aristo Shoes, Milan , and we are writing to enquire whether you would be willing to establish business relations with us. We have been importers of shoes for many years. At present, We are interested in extending our, range and would appreciate your catalogues and quotations.If your prices are competitive we would expect to transact a significant volume of business. We look forward to your early reply.

Very truly yours自米蘭職權里斯托鞋類公司取得貴公司和地址,特此修函,祈能發展關系。多年來,本公司經營鞋類進口生意,現欲擴展業務范圍。盼能惠賜商品目錄和報價表。如價格公道,本公司必大額訂購。煩請早日賜復。此致

2.回復對方建立商業關系的請求的英文書信

Thank your for your letter of the 16th of this month. We shall be glad to enter into business relations with your company. In compliance with your request, we are sending you, under separate cover, our latest catalogue and price list covering our export range. Payment should be made by irrevocable and confirmed letter of credit. Should you wish to place an order, please telex or fax us.本月16日收到有關商務關系的來函,不勝欣喜。謹遵要求另函奉上最新之出口商品目錄和報價單。款項煩請以不可撤銷保兌之信用狀支付。如欲訂貨,請電傳或傳真為盼。此致敬禮

3.請求擔任獨家代理的英文書信

We would like to inform you that we act on a sole agency basis fora number of manufacturers. We specialize in finished cotton goods for the Middle eastern market: Our activities cover all types of household linen. Until now , we have been working with your textiles department and our collaboration has proved to be mutually beneficial. Please refer to them for any information regarding our company. We are very interested in an exclusive arrangement with your factoryfor the promotion of your products in Bahrain. We look forward to your early reply. `本公司擔任多家廠家的獨家代理,專營精制棉織品,包括各燈家用亞麻制品,行銷中東。與貴公司向有業務聯系,互利互作。貴公司紡織部亦十分了解有關業務合作之情況。盼望能成為貴公司獨家代理,促銷在巴林市場的貨品。上述建議,煩請早日賜復,以便進一步聯系合作。此致敬禮

4.拒絕對方擔任獨家代理的英文書信

Thank you for your letter of 1 September suggesting that we grant you a sole agency for our household linens. I regret to say that, at this stage ,such an arrangement would berather premature. We would, however, be willing to engage in a trial collaboration with you company to see how the arrangement works. It would be necessary for you to test the market for our productsat you end. You would also have to build up a much larger turnover tojustify a sole agency. We enclose price lists covering all the products you are interested in and look forward to hearing from you soon. 9月1日有關建議擔任家用亞麻制品獨家代理的來信收悉。謹致衷心謝意。目前時機尚未成熟,不能應允該安排深感抱歉。然而,本公司樂意與貴公司先試行合作,為今后合作打下基礎。為證明擔任獨家代理的能力,貴公司宜上述貨品作市場調查,研究是否可擴大現有之營業額。奉上該貨品之報價單,敬希查照。專此候復。此致敬禮

5.同意對方擔任獨家代理的英文書信

Thank you for your letter of 12 April proposing a sole agency for our office machines. We have examined our long and ,I must say ,mutually beneficial collaboration. We would be very pleased to entrust you with the sole agency for Bahrain. From our records, we are pleased to note that you have two service engineers who took training courses at our Milan factory .the sole agency will naturally be contingent on you maintaining qualified aftersales staff. We have drawn up a draft agreement that is enclosed. Please examine the detailed terms and conditions and let us know whether they meet with your approval. On a personal note, I must say that I am delighted that we are probably going to strengthen our relationship. I have very pleasant memories of my last visit to Bahrain when you entertained me so delightfully .I look forward to reciprocating on your next visit to Milan . My very best wishes to you and your wife. 4月12日建議擔任為公室器具之獨家代理來信已經收悉。過去雙方合作皆互利互助,能獲您的眷顧作我公司于巴林的獨家代理,殊感榮幸。據知您公司兩服務技師曾到我公司米蘭工廠受訓。相信您公司在取得代理權后,仍會繼續注重合格售后服務人員的訓練。現隨信附上協議草稿,請查實各項條款,惠復是盼。能加強業務,我亦感到欣喜,前次到訪巴林,蒙盛情款待,不勝感激。祈盼您蒞臨米蘭時,容我一盡地主之誼。此致敬禮

6.借引薦建立業務關系的英文書信

At the beginning of this month , I attended the Harrogate toy fair. While there , I had an interesting conversation with Mr. Douglas Gage of Edutoys plc about selecting an agency for our teaching aids. Douglas described your dynamic sales force and innovative approach to marketing. He attributed his own company's success to your excellent distribution network which has served him for several years. We need an organization like yours to launch our products in the UK. Our teaching aids cover the whole field of primary education in all subjects .Our patented ‘Matrix’ math apparatus is particularly successful. You may have reservations about American teaching aids suiting your market. This is not a problem since we have a complete range of British English versions. I enclose an illustrated catalogue of our British English editions for your information. Please let me have your reactions to the material. I shall be in London during the first two weeks of October .Perhaps we could arrange a meeting to discuss our proposal.本用初參觀哈洛加特玩具交易會時有幸與教育玩具股份有限公司的道格拉斯?蓋齊先生一談,提及本公司正物色代理人推廣教學器材一事。蓋齊先生贊揚貴公司積極推廣產品,不斷推出新的推銷方法,并把其公司的成就歸于貴公司完善的經銷網絡。貴公司的經驗,正能替本公司在英國經銷產品。本公司生產初級教育各學科的教育器村、專利產品梅特里克教學器材更傲視同儕。除美國教學器材外,亦備有全套英式英語版教材,適合當地市場,貴公司無需憂慮切合市場需求。現附上配有插圖的英式英語版教材目錄,盼抽空細閱,并賜知寶貴意見。本人擬于10月頭兩星期前往倫敦,未知能否安排會面,就以上建議作一詳談?此致敬禮

7.邀請參觀貿易展覽會的英文書信

Many thanks for your letter and enclosures of 12 September. We were very interested to hear that you are looking for an UK distributor for your teaching aids. We would like to invite you to visit our booth,no.6,at next month's London Toy Fair, at Earl's court , which starts on 2 October. If you would like to set up an appointment during non exhibit hall hours please call me. I can then arrange for our sensor staff to be present at the meeting. We look forward to hearing from you.多謝9月12日的來信和附件。獲悉貴公司有意物色英國銷售商推廣教學輔助設備,甚感興趣。本公司將于10月2日于厄爾大樓舉行的聳敦玩具商品交易會上展示產品,誠邀貴公司派員參觀設于46號之攤位。如能安排于非展出時間面談,煩請電復。定必委派高層人員赴會。本公司深知貴公司產品精美質優,希望能發展互惠之業務。特此奉告,并候復音。

8.與過去有貿易往來的公司聯系的英文書信

We understand from our trade contacts that your company has reestablished itself in Beirut and is once again trading successfully in your region. We would like to extend our congratulations and offer our very best wishes for your continued success. Before the war in Lebanon , our companies were involved in a large volume of trade in our textiles. We see from our records that you were among our best tem customers. We very much hope that we can resume our mutually beneficial relationship now that peace has returned to Lebanon. Since we last traded, our lines have changed beyond recognition. While they reflect current European taste in fabrics, some of our designs are specifically targeted at the Middle Eastern market. As an initial step , I enclose our illustrated catalogue for your perusal. Should you wish to receive samples for closer inspection, we will be very happy to forward them. We look forward to hearing from you.從同行中獲悉貴公司貝魯特復業,生意發展迅速。得聞喜訊,不勝歡欣。謹祝業務蒸蒸日上。黎巴嫩戰事發生前雙方曾有多宗紡織品交易;貴公司更是本公司十大客戶之一。現今戰事平息,亟盼能重展雙方互惠的業務聯系。自上次合作至令,產品款式變化極大。除了有迎合歐洲人口味的款式這外,亦有專門為中東市場而設計的產品。現奉上配有插圖的商品目錄供初步參考。職需查看樣本,還望賜知。

9.確認約會的英文書信

I would like to confirm our appointment to discuss the possibility of merging our distribution networks. I am excited of the prospect ofexpanding our trade. As agreed, We will meet of our office in bond street at 9.30a.m.on Monday 20 March. I have scheduled the whole day for the meeting. If for any reason you are unable to attend , please phone me so that we can make alternative arrangements. Please let me know if you would like our office to arrange hotel accommodation. I look forward with great pleasure to our meeting.承蒙拔冗講討論合并雙方銷售網,以擴大貿易發展范圍,深感興奮。現特修函確定會議日程。謹于3月20日星期一在邦德街辦公室候教,請貴公司代表于當日早上9時蒞臨指導。若因故未能抽空出席,煩請致電告知,以便另行安排會晤。未知是否需代為安排旅館膳宿?請盡早賜知,以便早作準備,款待貴客。謹此預祝會談成功。

10.感謝客戶訂貨的英文書信

Gillette-burns Co. 322 Gleenwood street Gleveland 5,Ohio Glentlemen: Thank you for your order no,464 of 20 september. The models you selected from our showroom went out today under my personal supervision.The package is being airfreghted to you on swissair.The relevant documentation is enclosce.I enjoyed meeting yiu and hope that this order represents the beginning of a long and prosperous relationship between oiur companies. The next time you visit us ,please let me know in advance so that I can arrange a luch for you with our derectors. Sincerely yours謝謝9月20日第464號定單。今天我已新自監督發送您自展覽室挑選的產品。該產品隨附有關文件經瑞士航空公司運送。很榮幸與你會面,衷心希望是次定單能加強雙方的關系。下次到訪前,煩請賜知,俾能安排與本公司董事共進午餐。

11.向長期客戶推銷新產品的英文書信

I enclose an illustrated supplement toour catalogue. It covers the latest designs which are now available from stock. We are most gratified that you have, for several yeas. Include a selection of our products in your mail-order catalogues. The resulting sales have been very steady. We believe that you will find our new designs most attractive. Theyshould get a very good reception in your market. Once you have had time to study the upplement , please let us know if you would like to take the matter further. We would be very happy to send samples to you for closer inspection. For your information, we are planning a range of classical English dinner services which ,should do well in the North American market. We will keep you informed on our progress and look forward to hearingfrom you.隨函寄奉配有插圖的商品目錄附頁,介紹最新設計的產品。貴公司的郵購目錄多年來收錄本公司產品,產品銷售成績理想,特此致以深切謝意。最新設計的產品巧奪天工,定能吸引顧客選購。煩請參閱上述附頁,需查看樣本,請賜復,本公司樂意交勞。本公司現正設計一系列款式古典的英國餐具,適合北美市場需求。如感興趣,亦請賜知。愿進一步加強聯系,并候復音。

12.為商貿指南兜攬廣告的英文書信

Thank you for your business. You arecurrently represented in our directory. This is the only directory of its kind which reaches all companies in the building and construction industry in the UK. Advertising in our directory was a wise move on your part. We are currently compiling a new edition of the directory which willbe published in April 1995.The new edition will be expanded to include major manufacturers of plumbing equipment in the European Community. For proper coverage in the directory, you ought to appear in more than one category. If you do opt for a multiple listing, you will be ableto buy space in additional categories at half price. You can be assured that the new edition will be on the desks of allthe major decision makers in the building and hardware trades. Please complete the enclosed form and return it with the appropriate fee. Thanks again for your business.衷心感謝惠顧。貴公司商號已刊登在本公司的商貿指南中。該指南乃唯一覆蓋英國全部建筑公司的刊物,在此刊登廣告確是明智之舉。現下籌備1998年4月版的貿易批南,新版會羅列歐洲貢同體的主要鉛管業制造商。為達到出色的宣傳效果,貴公司宜考慮在不同類別刊登廣告。如蒙惠顧,除首個廣告外,其余類別的廣告將可獲半價優惠。該指南將分送給所有建筑公司和五金器具公司主管。煩表填妥隨附表格,連同廣告費用一并寄回。專此盼候佳音。

13.請求客戶作推薦人的英文書信

Thank you for your letter of 2 November. We are delighted to hear that you are to pleased with the refurbishment of your hotel. As your know .in our line of work, we depend on good ,reports about our projects to win further business. Our clients always shop around and look for references before committing themselves. With your permission, we would like to use your hotel as a reference when we discuss similar refurbishments in the hotel industry . Would you agree to our suggesting that future clients should call you? It would also be most helpful if we could occasionally bring a client to look at your hotel . We would , of course , stay overnight at least.I'll call you next week to hear your reaction. Thanks again for you kind words.從11月2日的來函得悉閣下對貴飯店的整修感到滿意,此消息對本公司實是一鼓勵。設計行業重視聲譽,客人在選擇設計公司時必然會有所比較。如蒙允許,本公司欲請貴飯店作推薦人,證明有關整修的質素。未知可否讓其他客戶來電垂詢?此外,如獲允準間或聯同客戶前來參觀貴飯店整修,定必有莫大幫助。當然,本公司會預訂房間,至少留宿一晚。

14.通知客戶價格調整的英文書信

We enclose our new catalogue and price list. The revised prices will apply from 1 April 1997. You will see that there have been number of changes in our product range. A number of improved models have been introduced. Out range of washing machines has been completely revamped. Many popular lines, however, have been retained unchanged. You will be aware that inflation is affecting industry as a whole .Ws have been affected like everyone else and some price increases havebeen unavoidable. We have not, however, increased our prices across the board, In many cases, there is a small price increase, but in others, none at all. We can assure you that the quality of our consumer durables has been maintained at a high standard and that our service will continueto be first class. We look forward to receiving your orders.謹謝上新的商品目錄和價格表。修訂價格定于1997年4月1日起生效。產品系列有一大革新,增加了不少改良的型號,扒出一系列新款的洗衣機,但許多款的開動號仍保持不變。通貨膨脹影響整個工業連帶令貨品價格上漲。雖然如此,本公司并未全面提升價格,調整幅度亦不大。本公司堅守一貫信念,務求出產優質之耐用消費品,迎合顧客的需要。謝謝貴公司多年惠顧,盼繼續合作。

15.說明價格調整原因的英文書信

I enclose our new price list , which will come into effect ,from the end of this month. You will see that we have increased our prices on most models. We have ,however , refrained from doing so on some models of which we hold large stocks. We feel we should explain why we have increased our prices. We are paying 10% more for our raw materials than we were paying last year. Some of our subcontractors have raised their by as much as 15%. As you know , we take great pride in our machines and are jealous of the reputation for quality and dependability which we have achieved over the last 40 years. We will not compromise that reputation because of rising costs. We hope, therefore decided to raise the price of some of our machines. We hope you will understand our position and look forward to your orders.現謹附上本公司新價格表,新價格將于本月底生效。除了存貨充裕的商品外,其余大部分貨品均已調升價格。是次調整原因是原材料價格升幅上漲10%□,一些承包商的價格調升到15%。過去40年,本公司生產的機器品質優良、性能可靠。今為確保產品質量,唯有稍為調整價格。上述情況,還望考慮。愿能與貴公司保持緊密合作。

16.回復感謝信的英文書信

We greatly appreciate your letter describing the assistance you received in solving your air-conditioning problems. We are now in our fifty year of operation, and we receive many letters like your indicating a high level of customer satisfaction with our installation. We are pleased that our technical staff assisted you so capably. We would like you to know that it you need to contact us at any time in the future. Our engineers will be equally responsive to your request for assistance. If we can be of service to you again, please let us know. Thank you again for your very kind letter.承蒙來信贊揚本公司提供的空調維修工程服務,欣喜不已。五年前開業至今,屢獲客戶來函嘉獎,本公司榮幸之至。欣悉貴公司識技術人員的服務,他日苛有任何需要,亦請與本公司聯絡,本公司定當提供優秀技師,竭誠效勞。在此謹再衷心感謝貴公司的贊賞,并請繼續保持聯絡。

17.請客戶征詢其它公司的英文書信

Thank you for your enquiry of 5 May concerning silk blouses. We regret to say that we do not manufacture clothing to your own designs to the highest European standards: Swan Textiles corporation The industrial zone Shekou We supply the factor with all their silk materials, I enclose a swatch of our stock materials for your examination. Should you desire any of these samples made up into finished products , we can supply the swan factory with them. We hope that this will be of help to you and wish you every success in your business dealings.謝謝5月5月日來函查詢關于紆綢罩衫的事宜。本公司只生產紆綢布料,供應紡織品批發商和制造廠家,并沒有制造成衣,因而未能接受貴公司訂貨,謹致萬分歉意然而,本公司樂意推薦本地一家生產優質男裝的工廠,相信可按貴公司設計的款式制造符合歐洲最高標準的服裝:蛇口工業區天鵝紡織品公司。該廠的絲綢布料全由本公司供應,隨函了什樣本以供查閱,如貴公司認為適合,本公司樂意負責供應所需布料。愿上資料對貴公司有所幫助。謹祝生意興隆,事事順達。

18.改善服務的英文書信

Thank you for your letter of 26 January. I apologize for the delivery problems you had with us last month. I have had a meeting with our production and shipping managers to work out a better system for handling your account .We know we made a mistake on your last order . Although we replaced it for you. we want to make sure it does not happen again. We have devised the enclosed checklist to use for each of your future order. It includes your firm's particular specifications, packing requirements and marking instructions. I believe can service your company better and help you operations run more smoothly with this safeguard. Please contact us if there are any additional points you would like us to include.感謝1月26日來信。對上月貴公司更換所需貨品,唯恐類似事件再發生,本公司生產、運輸和出口部經理已商議制訂更有效方法處理貴公司事務,并為此特別設計清單。隨信奉上該清單,供貴公司今后訂貨之用。當中包括特殊規格、包裝要求和樗說明等欄目,相信此舉有助本公司提供更佳服務,促進雙方合作。如欲增設任何欄目于該清單上,懇求惠示。

19.拒絕客戶的要求的英文書信

Thank you for your enquity of 25 August.We are always pleased to hear from a valued customer.I regret to say that we cannot agree to your request for technical information regarding our software security sysytems.The fact is,that most of our competitors also keep such information private and confidential.I sincerely hope that this does not inconvenience you in any way.If there is any other way in which we can help. do not hesitte to contact us again. 8月25日信收悉,謹此致謝。來信要求本公司提供有關軟件保密系統的技術資料,但鑒于同行向來視該等資料為機密文件,本公司亦不便透露,尚祈見諒。我真誠地希望這樣不會對貴公司造成不便。如需本公司協助其他事宜,歡迎隨時賜顧垂詢。祝業務蒸蒸日上!

20.應付難辦的客戶的英文書信

We have been doing business together for a long time and we value our relationship of late, we have not been able to provide the kind of service we both want. The problem is that your purchasing department is changing orders after they have been placed. This has led to confusion and frustration for both of our companies. In several instances. you have returned goods that were originally ordered. To solve the problem , I propose that on receipt of an order, our sales staff contact you to verify it. If you decide on any changes, we will amend the order and fax you a copy so that you can check it. I trust this system will cut down on delays and errors, and allow our operations to run smoothly.承蒙多年惠顧,本公司感激萬分。然近來合作出現問題,令服務水準未能符合對方要求,本公司為此擔憂不已。貴公司采部發出定單后,再三更改內容;更有甚者,屢次退回訂購之貨品,導致了雙方公司工作中的混亂和困惑。為避免問題日趨嚴重,特此在接到定單后,由本公司銷售人員與貴公司復核。若需作出改支,本公司把定單修改后電傳副本,供貴公司查核。盼望上述辦法經受減少延誤,促進雙方業務發展。

21.祝賀新公司成立的英文書信

It has just come to our attention that you have lately opened your new European headquarters in Brussels. Congratulations on your bold venture. As you know , our companies have had a long business association in the UK. We look forward to collaborating with you in your European venture. Please let us know if we can be of any assistance to you. We will be delighted to help. We wish you the very best of luck and a prosperous future.

22.非正式的預約要求的英文書信

Could we meet some time this month to discuss the hypermarket proposal? We want to make decision by the beginning of next month. We would very much like to hear your thoughts before we make any definite plans. Could you choose a venue for the meeting? I can fly to London any time, Perhaps you would prefer Lyon or Paris? I leave it to you to choose. I look forward to seeing you again.您好!未知能否于本月會面,商談有關特大自助市場的建議呢?我們準備于下月初作出最后決定。在未訂下明確計劃之前,希望能咨詢的意見。敢問能否選定會面地點?在倫敦、巴黎或里昂商談都可以,悉隨尊便。期待與您見面。

23.物色代理商的英文書信

Our company manufactures a range of printing presses that are used successfully by companies in over 20 countries. A product specification brochure is enclosed. We are considering expanding our products to new markets and we would appreciate you assistance. In particular , we would like to identify the best agents who are currently serving the printing industryin your region. We are looking for organizations which conduct their business in a truly professional manner. They must be fully conversant with thetechnical side of the printing industry and have a comprehensive understanding of all the features of the lines t6hey represent. We would be very grateful if you could take a few moments to send us the names of three or four organizations that match our requirements.We shall then contact them to explore the possibility of establishing a mutually acceptable business relationship. Thank you very much for your time and consideration in this matter.本公司生產的一系列印刷機,獲二十多個國家的公司采用。隨函附上產品規格說明書,謹供參考。現為該產品開拓新市場,希望得知貴地區從事印刷工業的代理商資料。如蒙貴公司協助,將不勝感激。如能撥冗寄來數個符合上述要求代理商商號,則感激不盡。本公司將與其聯系,研究能否建立互惠互利折業務關系。右蒙惠告,不勝感荷!

24.歡迎新代理商的英文書信

I would like to welcome you to our organization. We are very pleased to have you on our ream. I know that you will be equally proud of our products. Our European sales Representative, Antoine Gerin , will be in touch with you at regular intervals. Please feel to call him any time you have a problem, If I can regular intervals. Please feel free to call him any time you have a problem. If I can ever be of service, please call me. I am planning a trip to France next month, and I am looking forward to meeting you. In the meantime, the best of luck with our product line.歡迎加入本公司成為我們的一分子。相信您也會以本公司的產品為榮。歐洲銷售代理安東尼?格林會定期與聯絡,遇有問題可與他商討。若有其他需要,歡迎向我提出。下月我將赴法國一游,期望能與您會面。謹祝產品銷量節節上升。

25.要求約見的英文書信

Would you be interested in stocking a radical new departure in laptop computers? I would very much like to brief you on this great innovation. Could we make an appointment? The machine is the same size as most laptops but comes with some totally new features. The retail price will undercut its nearest competitor by at least 20%.I shall be in the UK from 1 September to 20 October. If you would like to know more, just fax or telex me.貴公司有沒有考慮配置最新型號的手提電腦?本公司誠意推介該嶄新產品,盼能預約時間作一介紹。該電腦體積和同類電腦相仿,但配備多項先進功能。其零售價較同類產品便宜20%以上。本人將于9月1日至10月20日逗留英國。如蒙撥冗了解該產品資料,煩請函復。

26.拒絕約見的英文書信

Thank you for your letter of 7 July regarding your new laptop computer. I regret to say that we cannot agree to your request for an appointment. We currently have the sole agency for another computer company, Under the terms of the contract , We are barred from stocking any other company's products. The sole agency comes under review in six months' time . Contact us then and we may be able to consider your new product. 7月7日有關新型號手提電腦函收悉。本公司暫未能安排會面,深感歉意。現時正為另一家電腦公司提任獨家代理,根據合約條款,不得銷售別家電腦公司的產品。該代理權將于六個月后期滿。屆時煩請再作聯系,共商貴產品代理事宜。

27.同意約見的英文書信

Thank you for your letter of 15 September. I note that you will bein the UK during the whole of November. We are quite interested by the fashion knitwear illustrated in yourcatalogue. As a fashion Chain. We might consider having some of our own designs manufactured in China. Please let me know when you would like to call on us. The week beginning 6 November would suit me best. I look forward to meeting you and discussing this matter.感謝9月15日的來信。欣聞閣下將于11月逗留倫敦一個月,望到時能撥冗相會。本公司對貴公司商品目錄中的針織時裝深感興趣。現正研究設計款式,在中國制造后寄本公司時裝連鎖店發售。如能于11月6日或其后數天抽空來訪,當感激不盡。期待與您會面,商討有關事宜。

再別康橋

輕輕的我走了,

正如我輕輕的來;

我輕輕的招手,

作別西天的云彩。

Very quietly I take my leave

As quietly as I came here;

Quietly I wave good-bye

To the rosy clouds in the western sky.

那河畔的金柳

是夕陽中的新娘

波光里的艷影,

在我的心頭蕩漾。

The golden willows by the riverside

Are young brides in the setting sun;

Their reflections on the shimmering waves

Always linger in the depth of my heart.

軟泥上的青荇,

油油的在水底招搖;

在康河的柔波里,

我甘心做一條水草

The floatingheart growing in the sludge

Sways leisurely under the water;

In the gentle waves of Cambridge

I would be a water plant!

那榆蔭下的一潭,

不是清泉,是天上虹

揉碎在浮藻間,

沉淀著彩虹似的夢。

That pool under the shade of elm trees

Holds not water but the rainbow from the sky;

Shattered to pieces among the duckweeds

Is the sediment of a rainbow-like dream?

尋夢?撐一支長篙,

向青草更青處漫溯,

滿載一船星輝,

在星輝斑斕里放歌

To seek a dream? Just to pole a boat upstream

To where the green grass is more verdant;

Or to have the boat fully loaded with starlight

And sing aloud in the splendour of starlight.

但我不能放歌,

悄悄是別離的笙簫;

夏蟲也為我沉默,

沉默是今晚的康橋!

But I cannot sing aloud

Quietness is my farewell music;

Even summer insects heep silence for me

Silent is Cambridge tonight!

悄悄的我走了,

正如我悄悄的來;

我揮一揮衣袖,

不帶走一片云彩。

Very quietly I take my leave

As quietly as I came here;

Gently I flick my sleeves

Not even a wisp of cloud will I bring away

Money is not everything. There's Mastercard & Visa.

鈔票不是萬能的,有時還需要信用卡.

One should love animals. They are so tasty.

每個人都應該熱愛動物,因為它們很好吃.

Love the neighbor. But don't get caught.

要用心去愛你的鄰居,不過不要讓她的老公知道.

Behind every successful man, there is a woman. And behind every unsuccessful man, there are two.

每個成功男人的背后都有一個女人,每個不成功男人的背后都有兩個女人。

Every man should marry. After all, happiness is not the only thing in life.

再快樂的單身漢遲早也會結婚,幸福不是永久的嘛.

The wise never marry, and when they marry they become otherwise.

聰明人都是未婚的,結婚的人很難再聰明起來.

Success is a relative term. It brings so many relatives.

成功是一個相關名詞,他會給你帶來很多不相關的親戚(聯系).

Never put off the work till tomorrow what you can put off today.

不要等明天交不上差再找借口,今天就要找好.

Love is photogenic. It needs darkness to develop.

愛情就像照片,需要大量的暗房時間來培養.

鄉愁

余光中

小時候,鄉愁是一枚小小的郵票,我在這頭,母親在那頭。

長大后,鄉愁是一張窄窄的船票,我在這頭,新娘在那頭。

后來啊!鄉愁是一方矮矮的墳墓,我在外頭,母親在里頭。

而現在,鄉愁是一灣淺淺的海峽,我在這頭,大陸在那頭。

Homesickness

 

When I was a child, my homesickness was a small stamp

Linking Mum at the other end and me this.

When grown up, I remained homesick, but it became a ticket

By which I sailed to and from my bride at the other end.

Then homesickness took the shape of a grave,

Mum inside of it and me outside.

Now I'm still homesick, but it is a narrow strait

Separating me on this side and the mainland on the other.

漢語連動式和兼語式的英譯法

漢語中兩個或兩個以上的動詞連用,構成復合謂語。復合謂語有兩種類型:連動式和兼語式。

一、連動式的譯法

漢語連動式的特點:兩個或兩個以上的動詞,與同一主語發生主謂關系。連動式的這兩個或兩個以上的動詞所表示的動作、行為,在順序上不能變動。

(一)表示先后關系的連動式通常將幾個動詞都譯成謂語動詞,按原文中的先后順序,用and加以連接。例如:

1.他把書接過來擺在膝蓋上。

He took the book and laid it on his lap.

2.這個軍官放下杯子站了起來。

The officer put down his glass and stood up.

表示動作先后的連動式,第一個動詞也可以用分詞結構來譯。

3.他打開抽屜拿出詞典來。

Opening the drawer he took out the dictionary.

4.她備好了課開始寫日記。

Having prepared her lessons, she began to write up her diary.

(二)表示手段、目的關系的連動式,在英譯時,通常是把前一個動詞,即表示手段的詞譯作謂語,而后一個動詞即表示目的的詞,則用不定式譯作謂語。

1、那老漢下意識地舉起手來搔他那光禿禿的頭頂。

The old man involuntarily raised his hand to scratch his bald head.

2.去年我和弟弟回鄉去看朋友。

Last year I went home with my brother to visit our friends.

表示手段、目的關系的連動式中,第二個動詞有時也可以用含目的意義的介詞來譯。

1.他回房間去取鑰匙。

He went back to his room for the key.

2.這年頭,誰敢下鄉去收租?

Who dares to go down into the villages for rent these days?

(三)有些連動式,前一個動作表示后一個動作的方式、狀態,兩者形成主從關系。在英譯時,通常把后一個動作用限定動詞譯成謂語,前一個動作譯成分詞或介詞短語。

1.他們熱烈鼓掌歡迎美國來賓。

They welcomed the American guests with warm applause.

2.不久,他捧著那本書回來了。

Very soon he came back, holding that book in his hand.

3.她已經洗完了衣服,坐在小溪邊的石頭上撩起布衫揩臉上的汗水。

She had already finished washing. Seated on a stone beside the stream, she wiped her perspiring face with her tunic.

二、兼語式的譯法兼語式的特點:謂語有兩個動詞,前一動詞的賓語,又是后一動詞的主語,前后兩個動詞不共用一個主語。兼語式的基本譯法有以下幾種:

(一)按英語的SVOC (主語+謂語+賓語+補語)句型把兼語式的第二個動詞轉化為英語的賓語補足語.

A.很多情況下,其賓補是由不定式充當.

1.謙虛使人進步,驕傲使人落后.

Modesty helps one to go forward, whereas conceit makes one lag behind.

2.我們都勸他戒煙.

We all advised him to give up smoking.

B.有時英語的賓語補足語可用介詞短語來充當.

3.他迫使對方處于守勢.

He drove his opponent into a defensive position.

4.地震使所有的房子都成了廢墟.

The earthquake reduced all the houses to ruins.

C.賓語補足語有時還可用形容詞,副詞,名詞或分詞來翻譯.

5、我們必須使房子保持整潔.

We must keep the room clean and tidy.

6、你媽媽叫你馬上回去,

Your mother wants you back home at once.

7、我們選他為區人民代表.

We elected him a deputy to the district people’s congress.

兼語式的第一個動詞如果是表示生理上感覺的動詞時,也常常按SVOC句型來翻譯.

8、他覺得房子在搖動.

He felt the house shaking.

9、我們可以聽見孩子們在外面玩.

We could hear the children at play outside.

(二)英語中有大量含有“致使” “促成”意義的動詞,有時為了句子簡單有力,往往用這類動詞來翻譯.例如:

1、這真叫我吃驚.

It surprised me!

2、這暴行使全世界公眾輿論感到震驚.

This outrage shocked the world opinion.

(三)有些兼語式結構出現在主語中充當句子的一個成分,這種兼語結構可譯成一個以具有動詞意義的名詞為中心詞的短語.

1、黨中央動員和組織邊區各方力量進行抗日贏得全國人民的高度贊揚.

The Party Central Committee’s mobilization and organization of the Border Region’s capacities to make war against the Japanese won high praise from the people throughout the country.

(四)兼語式的第一個動詞如果是“責怪”, “埋怨”, “批評”, “表揚”等,往往可將第二個動詞譯作英語的狀語短語或狀語從句.

1、報上批評這位作家沒有真實地反映生活.

Newspapers criticized the author because he failed to present a true picture of life in his works.

2、她責備孩子遲遲不回家.

She reproached her child for staying out late.

(五)有時也可按上下文和英語習慣靈活翻譯.

1、…要使十四億人的中國人民生活得好…

… to ensure a better life for the 1.4 billion people in China…

2、小姐,我勸您少管閑事.

Young lady, You’d better mind your own business.

3、您叫我去哪?

But where can I go?

漢英長句翻譯

漢語是以分析形式為主的語言,句子結構比較松散。有時一個句子里存在不少并列成分,但并沒有連接詞把其中的邏輯關系明顯地表現出來。英語是以綜合形式為主的語言,句子結構比較嚴謹,各個句子成分之間的邏輯關系需要明確彰顯。兩種語言在語法結構上的差異加大了長句翻譯的難度。

(1)原序對譯

即順譯法。這種方法多用于單一主語的長句,但要分清句中的信息重心。漢語的信息重心在許多情況下不體現在形式上,而體現在內在邏輯關系上。而英語句子很注重信息的主次之分,主要信息放在突出位置,次要信息作為輔助性的描寫或敘述手段。所以漢譯英時,應該把漢語隱性主次關系發掘出來,譯成英語的主次表達方式。通常,漢語中表示“結果、行為動作、推論結論、本質、目的”的部分會譯成英語的主句或謂語部分;漢語中表示“時間、地點、原因、條件、方式、方法、手段、狀態、說明、解釋、非本質、修飾、否定”的部分,在英語中則以從句或非謂語動詞的形式體現。

例1:

原文:當他活著一天,總要盡量多工作、多學習,不肯虛度年華,不讓時間白白地浪費掉。(2005年真題)

譯文:As long as they are living, they always work and study as hard as possible, unwilling to dream their life away, let alone waste even a single moment of their lives.

例2:

原文:…一旦隔離,拘禁在花園山坡上一幢小房子里,頓感被打入冷宮,十分郁郁不得志起來。(2003年真題)

譯文:Once I was deposed into a cold palace on the hillside of the garden, I suddenly felt I was neglected and became very depressed.

例3:

原文:我在山坡的小屋里,悄悄掀起窗簾,窺見園中大千世界,一片喧鬧。(2003年真題)

譯文:Without being noticed, I lifted the curtain in my small room, only to spy the bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden.

例4:

原文:其中有一半是近5年才來到溫哥華地區的,這使溫哥華成為亞洲以外最大的中國人聚居地。(1999年真題)

譯文:Half of them have come to Vancouver area the past five years only, making it the largest Chinese settlement outside Asia.

分析:原文中“這使…聚居地”是華人移民的結果,故而譯為現在分詞短語。

例5:

原文:我的導師是個亞裔人,嗜煙好酒,脾氣暴躁…(1997年真題)

譯文:My superior, an Asian American with a hot temper, was addicted to smoking and drinking.

分析:原文的信息重心為“嗜煙…暴躁”,確定為主干,從而將“是個亞裔人”譯為同位語。

例6:

原文:中國民族自古以來從不把人看作高于一切,在哲學文藝方面的表現都反映出人在自然界中與萬物占著一個比例較為恰當的地位,而非絕對統治萬物的主宰。(2006年真題)

譯文:Chinese people has never regarded human being as the highest creature among everything else since ancient times, whose behavior in both philosophy and arts takes a rather appropriate proportion with all others in the natural world, but not as an absolute dominant ruler.

分析:這句話結構比較復雜,第一句為主句,后面的小句是對第一句話的補充說明,省略了主語“中國民族”,可以用whose引導的定語從句來處理,簡化句子結構。

(2)分句合譯

一般來說,漢語句子要比英語句子簡短,漢語中較高層次的單位經常被譯為英語中層次較低一級的單位。

例1:

原文:釣魚是一項能夠陶冶性情的運動,有益于身心健康。(2001年真題)

譯文1:Fishing is an outdoor sport that can help cultivate your mind and it is good for mental and physical health.

譯文2:Fishing is an edifying activity, conductive to both the body and the mind.

例2:

原文:一個人的生命究竟有多大意義,這有什么標準可以衡量嗎?(2005年真題)

譯文:Could there be any standards to evaluate the meaning of ones life?

分析:“衡量”的賓語是前一個分句,即“生命的意義”,因此兩個分句整合譯為一句。

例3:

原文:求學是一件艱苦的事情,許多人不能忍受那必經的艱苦,所以不能成功。

譯文:To learn, actually, is to experience the indispensable pain and those who cannot get it over with can not become learned.

分析:原文中“求學…事情”與“許多人…成功”在語義和邏輯上較為緊湊,可將該句譯為一個并列句。

(3)斷句分譯

漢語多流水句,一個長句中可能有多個主語,英語中一句話只能有一個主語,因此應當把長句拆開來翻譯。

例1:

原文:一個春天的傍晚,園中百花怒放,父母在園中設宴,霎時賓客云集,笑語四溢。(2003年真題)

譯文:One spring evening, my parents held a banquet in the garden where all sorts of flowers were in full bloom. Instantly, a crowd of guests gathered together and their laughter was heard all over there.

例2:

原文:這次到臺灣訪問交流,雖然行程匆匆,但是,看了不少地方,訪了舊友,交了新知,大家走到一起,談論的一個重要話題就是中華民族在21世紀的強盛。(1998年真題)

譯文:The current visit to Taiwan for exchange,brief and cursory as it is,has enabled us to see many places,to visit old friends while making new acquaintances.An important topic for discussing at our gatherings was the prosperity of Chinese nation in the 21st century.

(4)主、次信息句

在漢語中,有時兩個或兩個以上的不同主語的句子在表面上是并列的,沒有主從或偏正關系,但實際上有內在的邏輯關聯和主次之分,因此不宜斷句分譯,而應把主要信息譯為完整的句子,把次要信息以獨立結構的形式體現。

例1:

原文:在世紀之交的偉大時代,我們的祖國正在走向繁榮富強,海峽兩岸人民也將加強交流,共同推進祖國統一大業的早日完成。(1998年真題)

譯文1:At the turn of the century, our motherland is becoming more prosperous and powerful. People across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of their motherland.

譯文2:At the turn of the century, as our motherland is becoming more prosperous and powerful, people across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of their motherland.

譯文3:At the turn of the century, our motherland becoming more prosperous and powerful, people across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of their motherland.

分析:這個句子有三種處理方式。可以根據分句的不同主語,斷句分譯,譯為兩個獨立的句子;也可以根據信息重心的主次,將次要信息“我們的祖國正在走向繁榮富強”譯為時間狀語從句或者獨立結構。

例2:

原文:很難說他什么時候回家,我得上床睡覺了。

譯文:There being no telling when hell be home, Ill have to go to bed now.

例3:

原文:這位民族英雄沒有死,他的故事照亮了千百萬人的心。

譯文:This national hero lives on, his story lighting up the hearts of millions of people.

如何培養英語思維方式

一、英語思維方式的培養應該從模仿開始。

“學習語言的主要手段是模仿,這種模仿是從聽覺定向活動開始的,經過大腦分析器的作用,然后由心理活動器官的操練而完成的。”心理語言學家認為,語言是從聽開始的,當一個嬰兒生下來就學說話時,完全是靠聽,模仿(imitate)母親的聲音。如果一個嬰兒生下來就是一個聾子,他就聽不到聲音,也談不上什么成功的模仿者。一個不足10歲的兒童,如果他一直生活在第一語言環境中,他就能學到一種漂亮的母語。如果想學好外語,必須下大功夫模仿,采取多種方式,利用一切機會進行模仿。埃克斯利(Eckersley,C.E.1974)說過,毫無疑問,模仿是成功的鑰匙,也許是把金鑰匙。(There is no doubt that imitation is one of the keys, perhaps the golden key ,to success.)有人認為模仿很簡單,好學,其實不然。養成一個好的模仿習慣并不容易,這種模仿只有像學母語那樣,方可學好。不下功夫,以為輕而易舉可以模仿好外語語音是不可能的。

因此,要想學好外語就要在模仿上下功夫,因為外語語言能否學好,在很大程度上決定于聽準外語老師發音的能力和學習者的模仿能力以及反復模仿的耐心。如果跟著外語老師念一遍,過后一勞永逸,那是學不好外語的。所以,一定要持之以恒地模仿、重復、練習。“聽別人怎樣說,就照樣跟著說。”這是學習語言的必由之路。

二、英語思維模式的培養應該培養自己擺脫母語的影響,用英語想英語。

用英語想英語,指的是在使用英語時用英語想(think in English),而不是用本族語想。用英語想,也可以說成用英語思考。學英語而不學用英語思考,一定學不好。用英語思考,就是在使用英語進行表達和理解時,沒有本族語思考的介入,沒有“心譯”的介入,或者說本族語思考的介入被壓縮到了極不明顯的程度,自己也感覺不到“心譯”的負擔。這才是真正流利,熟練的境界和標志。

用英語思考并不神秘,也非高不可攀。初學時,“心譯”的介入很明顯,但時間一長,反復運用的次數越來越多,“心譯”的程度就會越來越小,以至接近于消失。可見,培養英語思考的基本途徑是系統的大量的反復使用,是實踐練習。語言是工具。使用任何工具都有一個從不熟練到熟練的過程,在不熟練的階段,多余的動作很明顯,總要一邊做一邊考慮。初學者使用外語時,“心譯”就是這種多余的活動,是一邊用一邊考慮的表現。這里所說的考慮實際上是在大腦里進行的對將要表現出來的外部活動的一種檢驗。用本族語交際時,也有考慮考慮再說的情況,可以說是在心里把原來要說的話轉成或翻譯為另外一些說法進行掂量。但由于習以為常,所以不會給人造成負擔和精神緊張。而在用英語交際時,由于怕錯,所以想了又想,而由于英語不熟,語匯不多,所以就求助于本族語,產生“心譯”。因此,培養用英語思考,消除“心譯”,主要消除學生怕錯的緊張心理。

學習英語、使用英語都要用思想。思想要有邏輯性。邏輯指思維的規律性。思想的邏輯性,條理性在很大程度上取決于人的大腦對客觀事物反映的系統性和所掌握語言的系統程度。語言問題與邏輯問題是密切聯系的。學生使用英語進行表達或理解別人用英語表達的思想時,所遇到的困難雖然表現為語言上的困難,但實質上有相當一部分,或在相當程度上乃是邏輯上的困難。表達不好,常常是思路不清,理解不好,則常常是推理能力差。因此,為了培養用英語思考,就要加強英語練習的邏輯性,注意按照英語所反映的客觀事物的多種聯系,從性質、屬性、層次、因果等各方面的關系,對練習的形式和內容進行組織,訓練學生成套地表達和理解,形成以英語為外殼的思維定勢,相應的英語材料則以連鎖反應的方式在大腦里源源不斷地涌現。

擺脫母語影響的教育,用英語想英語應表現在課堂上的每一分鐘。

(一)營造良好的思維環境,激活學生學習思維。

1.融洽師生關系,激發用英語思考的興趣。

2.培養學生的獨立學習能力,讓他們有更多的用英語想英語,獨立思維的時間和空間。

3.給予成功的機會,增強學習情趣,激發用英語思維。

(二)創造生動的語言氛圍,提高學生的學習積極性。

1.用英語授課,堅持用英語和學生交流,給學生創造語言環境,挖掘教材本身的情趣,科學有效地利用并采用靈活多樣的方式,以活躍課堂氣氛,激起學生內在學習動力。

2.運用學習規律,調動學習興趣。利用學生已有的知識引出新知識,以舊帶新,由淺入深,由易到難,多啟發,少說教,使語言操練和實踐達到最佳效果。

3.加強語言實踐,保持學習興趣。教師可利用實物、卡片、掛圖、錄音機、投影儀及多媒體電腦等多種視聽手段,把真實的方式帶進課堂,豐富英語教學,為學生提供各種練習環境,使學生有身臨其境之感,訓練學生的英語思維,減少漢語媒介的中間環節,加深學生對英語語言的認識,提高自覺運用語言的能力。

擺脫母語影響用英語想英語還應表現在把它延伸到課下的課余活動中去。

(一)辦英語墻報,每個班級應定期出墻報。

(二)設立英語圖書角。

(三)設立校園英語電臺,創設新聞聯播、英文歌曲欣賞、娛樂動態等節目。

(四)設立豐富多彩的課外活動,如英語晚會、英語報告會、收看英語影視、英語學習作業展覽、英語短劇表演等。

思維方式的培養并非易事,因為你是在母語大環境的影響下,要改變學生的思維方式,你就要營造一個英語的語言環境,在好的外語環境中,外語思考就容易實現。

三、英語思維方式的形成應培養學生的英語語感。

語感(Speech feeling)是人們對語言的直接感覺,是系統綜合的語言感知力,是直接、敏銳的語言領悟力。而英語語感是語言的發展開始走向成熟期的一種心理現象,是對語言的語音、語義、語法、語氣等綜合運用所自然產生的激活效應,是對語言熟練掌握而自然生成的、不假思考的語言敏悟性。語感是一種十分抽象的東西,只有當你有了一定的閱讀量之后,你才能產生語感,你才知道哪個詞該重讀,哪個詞該輕讀,哪幾個詞為一個意群。語感的產生是英語思維方式的開始。

西方著名的語言學家和心理學家喬姆斯基(Chomsky)認為語感是語言學習的核心,語感越強就越能創造性地學習和使用語言。通過大量的語言信息的刺激就可以逐步獲得語感。

語感培養的方法主要是多聽、多看、多背誦。

所謂多聽就是要認真聽老師的英語講述,盡快聽懂課堂用語和日常交際用語。要多聽課文錄音和聽力材料。要多進行聽寫測試。多聽英美人的講話,多聽真實語言材料,如天氣預報、廣播、對話、廣告等。因為真實語言環境里面的英語語速正常,是有明顯的口語發音特征,如連續、弱讀、縮略等,而且社會交際中的語言常常是自然而然地抑揚頓挫,富有情感,通過聽口語化的語言材料可以使自己沉浸在真實的英語語言環境中。大量的聽力訓練及跟讀、跟唱模仿可以縮短自身的語言與所聽到的地道英語之間的距離。從而有利于講出自然、流暢的英語。

所謂多看,就是多看英美人寫的文章,特別要注意那些句子中所有的單詞你都認識,但就是理解不了這個句子的意思的句子。這些句子之所以理解不了,一是因為對句子理解不透,對某個詞你只理解它其中的一種解釋,而不知它在句子中還有別的解釋。如cell一詞在醫學上的解釋為“細胞”,在物理學上的解釋為“電池”,在通訊工程中的解釋為“手機”。一個詞在不同行業中有不同的解釋。二是因為文化和語言習慣上的差異。經常性的閱讀,尤其是英語原文,原汁原味,手不釋卷,語感也來了。

所謂背誦,是一種強化與集中的語言信息的刺激行為,它通過對語言材料進行反復朗讀、理解到思維加工形成記憶獲得大量的語言、詞語、語法和語用等信息的輸入,使學生逐漸提高對英語思維形式的感受能力,形成良好的語感,有效克服來自母語的干擾。實踐證明,一個大量誦讀英語文章的學生,即使對句子不作語法分析,在解決單選、完形填空、短文改錯等題型時,準確率也往往是挺高的。熟能生巧,語感正是他們準確捕捉信息的巧妙感受的體現,這種特殊感覺正來源于閱讀和背誦的積累。

用英語思維是許多英語學習者都希望達到的一種境界,因為這是用英語流暢地表達思想的基礎。中西文差異很大,英語和漢語的表達方式也不同。對于一個生活在非英語環境中的中國學生來說,要做到部分或全部用英文來思考確有很大難度,但也不是可望而不可即。要盡量了解英語國家的文化背景知識,養成用英語而不是漢語的思維來理解英語。

高級口譯筆記——文化交流(Cultural Exchange)

一、詞匯

漢字的四聲(平聲、上聲、仄聲和去聲)the four tones of Chinese characters, namely, the level tone, the rising tone, the falling-rising tone, and the falling tone

筆畫stroke

部首radical

偏旁basic character component

象形文字pictograph

獨角戲monodrama/one-man play

皮影戲shadow play

折子戲opera highlights

單口相聲monologue comic talk

對口相聲comic cross talk

說書monologue story-telling

傳說legend

神話mythology

寓言fable

武術martial art

氣功controlled breathing exercise

氣功療法breathing technique therapy

春聯spring couplet

剪紙paper-cut

戲劇臉譜theatrical mask

草藥的四氣:寒、熱、溫、涼four properties of medicinal herb: cold, hot, warm and cool

草藥的五味:酸、苦、甘、辛、咸five tastes of medicinal herb: sour, bitter, sweet, hot and salty

二十四節氣the twenty-four solar terms

天干地支the heavenly stems and earthly branches

清明節the Pure Brightness Day

端午節the Dragon Boat Festival

中秋節the Mid-Autumn Festival

文化事業cultural undertaking

民族文化national culture

民間文化folk culture

鄉土文化native/country culture

跨文化交流cross-cultural communication

文化沖擊culture shock

表演藝術performing art

舞臺藝術stage art

流行藝術popular/pop art

高雅藝術elegant/high art

電影藝術cinematographic art

十四行詩sonnet

三幕六場劇a three-act and six-scene play

音樂舞臺劇musical

復活節Easter

萬圣節Halloween

內容與形式的統一unity of content and form

古為今用,洋為中用。

Make the past serve the present and the foreign serve China.

中國是一個歷史悠久、文化燦爛的多民族國家。

China is a multinational country with a long history and splendid culture.

文化交流不是讓外國文化吞沒自己的文化,而是為了豐富和充實本民族的文化。

Cultural exchange is by no means a process of losing one’s won culture to a foreign culture, but one of inriching a nation’s own culture.

二、練習

【難度指數】☆☆☆

【難易程度】a piece of cake

筷子起源于中國,現在許多亞洲國家都使用它。第一批筷子是骨頭或玉制成的。在春秋時期出現了銅制和鐵制的筷子。

在古代,富人家用玉或金子制成筷子以顯示其家庭的富有。許多帝王有銀制的筷子來檢查他們的食物是否被投了毒。

友情提示:

筷子:chopsticks

玉:jade

高級口譯筆記——旅游觀光(Tourism)

一、詞匯

中國國家旅游局China National Tourism Administration

中國國際旅行社China International Travel Service

旅游管理局tourist administration burear

旅行社travel service/agency

旅游公司tourism company

春/秋游spring/autumn outing

假日旅行vacation tour

目的地destination

自然景觀natural scenery/attraction

人文景觀places of historic figures and cultural heritage

名山大川famous mountains and great rivers

名勝古跡scenic spots and historical sites

佛教名山famous Buddhist mountain

五岳five great mountains

避暑山莊mountain resort

度假勝地holiday resort

避暑勝地summer resort

自然保護區nature reserve

國家公園national park

旅游景點tourist attraction

古建筑群ancient architectural complex

園林建筑garden architecture

山水風光scenery with mountains and rivers

誘人景色inviting views

湖光山色landscape of lakes and hills

青山綠水green hills and clear waters

景色如畫picturesque views

金石印章metal and stone seals

石刻碑文stone inscriptions

天下第一泉the finest spring under heaven

石舫stone boat

水榭waterside house

蓮花池lotus pond

國畫traditional Chinese painting

山水/水墨畫landscape/ink painting

手工藝品artifact; handicrafts

陶器earthenware

折扇folding fan

木/竹/貝雕wood/bamboo/shell carving

聯合國教科文組織UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

國民生產總值GNP gross national product

國內生產總值GDP gross domestic product

二、例句

1.桂林山水甲天下,陽朔山水甲桂林。

Guilin landscape tops those elsewhere, and Yangshuo landscape tops that of Guilin.

2.這座寺廟歷史悠久,可追溯到初唐時期。

The temple has a long history dating back to the early period of the Tang Dynasty.

3.該城市有全國規模最大、最負盛名的園林。

The city boasts the largest and the most famous garden in the country.

三、練習

上海市英語高級口譯資格證書實考試題

【難度指數】☆☆☆

【難易程度】適中

加拿大幅員遼闊,其面積僅次于俄羅斯。可是它只有2600萬人,是聯合王國人口的一半還不到。

國土的三分之一覆蓋著森林,還有大片的草原,無數的湖泊和河流。其氣候差異甚大。

除了溫哥華以外,冬天異常寒冷。加拿大的夏天總的來說天氣暖和,特別是內陸地區,因此你只需要輕薄的衣服。

溫哥華Vancouver

高級口譯筆記——人物訪談(Interview)

VOCABLULARY

采訪人interviewer

被采訪人interviewee

常駐記者resident correspondent

特派記者staff correspondent

駐外國記者foreign correspondent

現場報道on-the-spot report; live report

新聞發布會news briefing

記者招待會press/news conference

消息靈通人士well-informed source

權威人士/來源authoritative source

可靠消息reliable news

新聞/通訊稿news release

頭條新聞top/headline news

標題新聞headline news

內幕新聞inside story

花邊新聞box news

時事current news

雜聞sidelights

專題報道special report

專欄作家columnist

特約撰稿人staff writer

自由撰稿人free-lancer

無可奉告no comment

記者證press card

通訊社news agency

新華社Xinhua News Agency

路透社(英)Reuter’s News Agency

美聯社(美)Associated Press

塔斯社(俄)TASS; Telegraphic Agency of Soviet Union

每日電訊報(英)The Daily Telegraph

紐約時報The New York Times

華爾街時報The Wall Street Journal

華盛頓郵報The Washington Post

高級口譯筆記——信息時代(The Information Age)

第一部分詞匯

新興產業emerging industry

朝陽產業sunrise industry

網絡產業Internet industry

虛擬現實virtual reality

虛擬商店virtual store

兼容性計算機平臺compatible computing platform

微型瀏覽器microbrowser

寬帶技術broadband technology

撥號上網調制解調器dial-up modem

交互式多媒體interactive multimedia

交互式電子書籍interactive e-book

界面interface

無線掌上導航器wireless palm pilot

蜂窩通信cellular communications

家用電器household electrical appliances

局域網Intranet

網站website

網民netizen

網吧cybercafe

網絡世界cyber world

網上貿易cyberbusiness

網上交易networked transaction

上市be listed on the stock market

市值stock value

稅后利潤after-tax profit

中國證監會China Securities Regulatory Commision

納斯達克NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations

ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line,不對稱數字訂閱線路

Delphi:讀音/′delfai/,特爾斐,古希臘城市名,被古希臘人當成世界的中心,因有阿波羅神殿而出名。在電腦英語中指美國寶蘭(Borland)公司的一種可視化、面向對象、事件驅動的電腦編程語言。

DLL:Dynamic Link Library,動態鏈接庫

DNS: Domain Name System,域名系統

FTP: File Transfer Protocol,文件傳輸協議

Ghost: General Hardware Oriented System Transfer,全面硬件導向系統轉移

HTML: HyperText Markup Language,超文本標記語言

HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol,超文本傳輸協議

IP: Internet Protocol,網際協議

ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network,綜合服務數字網絡

ISP: Internet Service Provider,因特網服務提供商

Java:由美國太陽(Sun)公司推出的新型面向對象程序設計語言。Java集面向對象、平臺無關性、穩固性、安全性、多線程等諸多特性于一體,增加了異常處理、網絡編程等方面的功能,特別適合于Internet應用的開發,是實現“一個世界,一個網絡”構想的關鍵。用Java編寫的各類軟件能真正做到“Write Once,Run anywhere(一次寫成,到處運行)”,也就是說,相同的軟件可在不同計算機上運行,無論是PC機、蘋果機、UNIX計算機、還是頂置盒、PDA(個人數據助理)乃至智能元器件無一例外。

LAN: Local Area Network,局域網

MIDI:Musical Instrument Digital Interface,樂器數字接口

MPEG:是Motion Picture Experts Group的,運動圖像專家組

MSN: Microsoft Network,微軟網絡

OCR:Optical Character Recognition,光學字符識別

OEM:Original Equipment Manufacturer,原始設備制造商

RAM:Random Access Memory,隨機存儲器,即人們常說的“內存”。

ROM:Read-Only Memory,只讀存儲器。

第二部分例句

據中國因特網信息中心的統計數據,中國的公共網絡已覆蓋365個城市,上網電腦達520萬臺,經常上網者達1,260萬人以上,網址有32,000個。

According to statistics from China Internet Network Information Center, the public network covers 365 cities, and the number of on-line computers reached 5.2 million, with 12.6 million regular Internet users and 23,000 web sites.

今天的因特網具有強大的通信功能,它可以提供電子郵件、即時信息和聊天室等多種通信方式。

Today’s Internet is a powerful way to communicate, including e-mail, instant messaging and chatroom services.

關注未來因特網的最佳方法是了解今日的因特網存在著什么問題。

The best way of looking at the Internet of the future is to ask what is wrong with today’s.

今天,商務和通信二十四小時不停地進行著。在有線電視的新聞節目中所報道的事件不是在幾點鐘發生,而是在一個小時或30分鐘前發生。當地時間已不再是一個有意義的時間標志。

Today, commerce and communications never cease but go around the clock. On cable-TV news shows, events did not happen at which hour, but an hour or 30 minutes ago. Local time is no longer the meaning marker of events.

高級口譯筆記——飲食文化(Catering Culture)

VOCABLULARY

烹調術cookery

色、香、味color, aroma and taste

佐料seasoning

刀功slicing technique

清炒plain-frying

煸stir-frying

爆quick-frying

炸deep-frying

煎pan-frying

焙roasting

清蒸steaming

氽quick-boiling

熏smoking

腌salting

食譜recipe

回鍋肉twice-cooked pork slices in brown sauce

炸豬排fried pork chop

北京烤鴨roast Beijing duck

什錦炒蔬stir-fried mixed vegetables

酸辣湯hot and sour soup

雞茸蘑菇湯cream of mushroom with chicken

主食staple food

饅頭steamed bread

米飯steamed rice

揚州炒飯Yangchow fried rice

冷面cold noodle

炒米粉fried ground rice noodles

炸醬面noodles with fried brown sauce paste

油條fried twisted stick

鍋貼pan-fried dumping

花卷steamed twisted roll

小籠包子steamed meat dumpling

粽子rice dumpling wrapped in reed leaves

黑啤dark beer

黃酒/花雕酒yellow rice wine

烈酒spitits/ strong liquor

白干white liquor

佐餐酒table wine

(酒)加冰塊的on the rocks

(酒)不加冰塊的straight up

小啜sip

礦泉水mineral water

紅茶black tea

清咖啡black coffee

全脂/脫脂奶whole/skim milk

酸奶yoghurt

粟子chestnut

馬蹄梨water chestnut

蓮子lotus seed

藕lotus root

獼猴桃kiwi fruit

山楂haw

棗Chinese date

餐前開胃點心appretizer

主菜main course

附菜side dish

餐后甜食dessert

什錦色拉mixed fruit salad with ham

什錦水果圣代mixed fruit sundae

民族風味餐ethnic food

小吃snack

冷盤cold dish

點心pastry

餐桌圓轉盤Lazy Susan

PRACTICE

Translate the following passage into English

評判中餐烹調的優劣可依據中餐的三大要素,即“色、香、味”。“色”作為“色、香、味”三要素中的首要標準,充分體現在宴會菜肴的裝盤、擺放和圖案上。最能顯示色彩的是首先上桌的好道煞費苦心而精心制作的冷盤。“香”不僅是指鼻子對食物的直接感受,它還包括所選原料的新鮮成度以及佐料的合理搭配。“味”則體現了恰到好處的調味藝術,當然它也包括食物的質地,以及切菜的刀功。色、香、味這三大要素的高品質,只有通過選料、調料、適時烹調、把握火候、裝盤上桌這些微妙步驟的細心協調,才能取得。

高級口譯筆記——諺語口譯(Interpreting Proverbs)①

諺語作為一種以簡單通俗的語言來表達深刻道理的語句,常為人們所引用。千百年來各國之間或多或少的文化交流,往往會使一個民族的諺語跨越疆界,廣為流傳于其它民族。許多諺語流傳甚廣,早已為我們所熟知。因此,諺語的口譯并非是一道不可逾越的障礙。諺語的口譯大致可分為三種類型,一種是“形同意合”的口譯,第二種是“形似意合”的口譯,第三種是“形異意合”的口譯。

一、“形同意合”的諺語

A fall into the pit, a gain in your wit.

吃一塹,長一智。

All shall be well, Jack shall have Jill.

有情人終成成眷屬。

A man should not bite the hand that feeds him.

不要恩將仇報。

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

情人眼里出西施。

Business is business.

公事公辦。

Facts speak louder than words.

事實勝于雄辯。

Failure is the mother of success.

失敗乃成功之母。

Fish in troubled waters.

渾水摸魚。

Friends must part.

聚散離合總有時。/天下無不散之宴席。

Great minds think alike.

英雄所見略同。

Health is better than wealth.

家有萬貫財,不如一身健。

Hedges have eyes, walls have ears.

隔籬有眼,隔墻有耳。

In time of peace prepare for war.

居安當思危。

Like father, like son.

有其父,必有其子。

Man proposes, God disposes.

謀事在人,成事在天。

Misfortunes never come alone.

禍不單行。

Money can’t buy time.

寸金難買寸光陰。

More haste, less speed.

欲速則不達。

Out of office, out of danger.

無官一身輕。

Out of sight, out of mind./Far from eye, far from heart.

眼不見為凈。

Pride goes before a fall.

驕者必敗。

The style is the man.

文如其人。

Time and tide wait for no man.

時不我待。/歲月無情。

The remembrance of the past is the teacher of the future.

前事不忘后事之師。/前車之覆,后車之鑒。

To teach is to learn.

教學相長。

The tongue cuts the throat.

禍從口出。/言多必失。

高級口譯筆記——諺語口譯(Interpreting Proverbs)②

二、形似意合的諺語

1. A new broom sweeps clean.

新官上任三把火。

2. All roads lead to Rome./ All rivers run into the sea.

殊途同歸。

3. As a man sows, so he shall reap.

種瓜得瓜,和豆得豆。

4. A sparrow cannot understand the ambition of a swan.

燕雀安知鴻鵠之志。

5. A straight foot is not afraid of a crooked shoe.

身正不怕影兒斜。

6. A word spoken is past recalling.

一言既出,駟馬難追。

7. Beat the dog before the lion.

殺雞儆猴。

8 Better an open enemy than a false friend.

明槍易躲,暗箭難防。

9. Diamond cut diamond.

強中更有強中手。

10. Do one thing under cover of another.

明修棧道,暗度陳倉。

11. Dogs bite in every country.

天下烏鴉一般黑。

12. Every potter praises his pot.

王婆賣瓜,自賣自夸。

13. Fine feathers make fine birds.

佛要金裝,人要衣裝。

14. Gifts blind the eyes.

拿了手短,吃了嘴軟。

15. Good wine needs no bush.

酒香不怕巷子深。

16. Have a card up one’s sleeve.

胸有成竹。

17. He cries wine and sells vinegar.

掛羊頭,賣狗肉。

18. He takes a spear to kill a fly.

殺雞用牛刀。

19. In for a penny, in for a pound.

一不做,二不休。

20. It is better to be the head of a dog/lizard than the tail of a lion.

寧為雞首,不為牛后。

21. It is better to die than to live when life is a disgrace./ Better die with honor than live with shame.

寧可玉碎,不為瓦全。

22. Judge not a book by its cover.

人不可貌相,海不可斗量。

23. Kill two birds with one stone.

一箭雙雕。/一石二鳥。

24. Let sleeping dogs lie.

勿打草驚蛇。

25. Love me, love my dog.

愛屋及烏。

26. Much will have more.

得隴望蜀。/得寸進尺。

27. Once bit, twice shy.

一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井繩。

28. Peace on the forehead and war in the mind.

口蜜腹劍。

29. Put the cart before the horse.

本未倒置。

30. Speak of the devil( and he will appear).

說曹操,曹操到。

31. Teach fish to swim.

班門弄斧。

32. The pupil outdoes the master.

青出于藍而勝于藍。

33. The same knife cuts bread and fingers.

水能載舟,亦能覆舟。

34. The sauce is better than the fish.

喧賓奪主。

35. There are plenty of fish in the sea.

天涯何處無芳草。

36. There is no smoke without fire.

無風不起浪。

高級口譯筆記——諺語口譯(Interpreting Proverbs)③

三、形異意合的諺語,這類諺語常常會被望“形”生“意”,造成誤譯。

1. A bad conscience is a snake in one’s heart.

做賊心虛。

2. Accidents will happen.

天有不測風云,人有旦夕禍福。

3. A clear conscience is a sure card.

為人不做虧心事,半夜不怕鬼敲門。

4. A hedge between keeps friendship green.

君子之交淡如水。

5. All your swans are geese.

事與愿違。

6. As you make the bed, so you must lie in it.

自食其果。

7. A watched pot never boils.

心急吃不了熱豆腐。

8. Count one’s chickens before they are hatched.

盲目樂觀。

9. Danger is next neighbor to security.

塞翁失馬,安知非福?

10. Do in Rome as Romans do.

入鄉隨俗。

11. Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.

順其自然。

12. Everybody’s business is nobody’s business.

三個和尚無水吃。

13. Justice has long arms.

天網恢恢,疏而不漏。

14. He knows most who speaks least./Still water runs deep.

大智若愚。

15. Late fruit keeps well.

大器晚成。

16. Many kiss the baby by the name of the nurse’s sake.

醉翁之意不在酒。

17. Misfortune might be a blessing in disguises.

禍兮福所倚,福兮禍所伏。

18. Names are debts.

樹大招風。

19. Nothing venture, nothing have.

不入虎穴,焉得虎子。

20. Rest breeds rust.

生命在于運動。

21. Rome was not built in a day.

冰凍三尺非一日之寒。

22. Save your breath to cool your porridge.

各人自掃門前雪,莫管他人瓦上霜。

23. Short pleasure, long lament.

一失足成千古恨。

24. Stick together through thick and thin.

患難與共。

25. Take things as they come.

既來之則安之。

26. The pot calls the kettle black.

五十步笑一百步。

27. The shepherd would rather lose the wool than the sheep.

留得青山在,不怕沒柴燒。

28. Things done cannot be undone.

木已成舟。/覆水難收。

29. True blue will never stain.

真金不怕火煉。

30. You cannot make a crab walk straight.

江山易移,本性難改。

高級口譯筆記——同聲傳譯(Undertaking Simultaneous Interpretation)

同聲傳譯,又稱同步口譯,是譯員在不打斷講話者演講的情況下,不停地將其講話內容傳譯給聽眾的一種口譯方式。同聲傳譯的最大優點在于效率高,可以保證講話才作連貫發言,不影響或中斷講話者的思路,有利于聽眾對發言全文的通篇理解。

一、在同聲傳譯活動中對譯員的要求

1、同聲傳譯要求譯員有良好的聽覺解意能力。同聲傳譯是一種即聽即譯的活動,聽入與譯出之間只保持幾秒鐘的時間距離,譯員在口頭傳譯幾秒鐘前聽到的信息的同時,還必須耳聽及解譯新的信息。因此這種聽覺解意能力非同一般意義的耳聽會意能力,它指的是一種譯員在有自我干擾的環境下及時聽解信息的能力。

但是譯員的聽解并非完全是一種被動的行為,譯中可以從大會的主題、發言者的立場、發言論題或論點的背景知識等示意因素,使自己的聽譯建筑在“上下文”的基礎上,進而變被動聽譯為主動聽譯。

2、同聲傳譯要求譯員具備在聽解的同時有迅速組織句子進行連貫流暢表達的能力。也許有人會認為,漢語是我們的母語,因此英譯漢的困難在于能否及時聽懂英語內容,不在于如何有漢語來組句和表達。這完全是對口譯工作的一種誤解。組句表達,無論是以外語還是以母語進行,都是一門學問,一種才能,尤其是在需要顧及聽的內容的情況下。

二、同聲傳譯的一些基本方法和技巧

1、意譯

同聲傳譯即聽即譯的特點,迫使譯員不得不“一心二用”,使譯員在翻譯過程中難以做到“形”“意”兩全。此外,譯員在同步傳譯時迫于時間壓力,也無法對目標語的表達形式斟詞酌句一番。在“形”“意”難以兩全的情況下,譯員應采用意譯的方法,以簡潔的語言迅速將來源語所包含的概念和命題傳達給聽眾。

2、順譯

順譯是指一種順著來源語的詞序,按部就班地選擇目標語的對應詞進行傳譯的方法。這里所講的順譯僅限于順結構、順詞序的傳譯,不包括詞詞對應的順譯。漢語和英語的基本句子結構均為“主—動—賓”結構,限定詞(如數詞和所有格代詞)和形容詞一般也都出現在名詞前面,這為英漢順譯或漢英順譯提供了必要的條件。

3、截句

截句是指譯員在同聲傳譯過程中及時、適時截斷來源語的長句,并按照目標語的表達習慣,將所聽到的信息分解成短句,或重組成聯句,然后傳譯過去。

詞語置前

例:中國政府將一如既往地支持聯合國主持正義、維護和平、促進全球繁榮的行動。

The Chinese government will as always support the UN efforts to uphold justice, maintain peace and promote global prosperity.

詞語后置或暫存

例:聯合國維和部隊應該駐扎在那一地區,一直到所有各方簽署了和約為止。我們的這一立場已得到公認。

Our position is widely received that the UN peace-keeping force will stay in that region until a peaceful agreement has been signed by all concerned parties.

添詞

例:我很高興地向各位通報,中美就知識產權問題簽署了一項諒解備忘錄,從而避免了一場可能出現的貿易戰。

I feel very pleased to report to you that China and the United States signed a Memorandum of Understanding in terms of protecting intellectual property rights, an act that has averted a potential trade war.

減詞

例:中國同其周邊國家的關系比以往任何時期都好,這種十分珍貴的睦鄰友好關系無論對中國人民還是這些國家的人們來說,都極為有益。

China’s relations with its neighboring countries are better than ever before, a situation that best represents the interests of the Chinese people and the peoples of other countries concerned.

重復

例:多年來,中國經濟的持續增長發揮了越來越重要的作用,這種作用在于促進了亞太地區乃至全球經濟的健康發展。

Over the years, China’s sustained economic growth has played an increasing more important role in boosting the healthy economic development in the Asian-Pacific region and the world as a whole.

同聲傳譯的才能不是一種可望而不可即的天賦才能。常言說得好,“工夫不負有心人”。只要我們細心鉆研同傳知識和技巧,積極參與同傳強化訓練,水到自然渠成。

高級口譯筆記——商務談判(Business Negotiation)

第一部分基本詞匯

詢價make an inquiry

報價quotation

報/發盤offer

底盤floor offer

實/虛盤firm/non-firm offer

開/收盤opening/closing price

現/期貨價spot/forward price

還盤counter-offer

回傭return commission

到岸價C.I.F.(即Cost, Insurance and Freight)

到岸加傭金價C.I.F.C.(即Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission)

現貨spot goods

庫存有限limited stock

批發價wholesale price

零售價retail price

凈利潤net profit

定金down payment

分期付款payment by installment

現金結算cash settlement

信用證結算payment by letter of credit(L/C)

股東shareholder; stockholder

我方on our part

雙贏戰略win-win strategy

中止合同terminate the contract

提出索賠lodge a claim

要求賠償損失claim for a compensation of the loss/damage

貿易索賠business claim

補償貿易compenstion trade

第二部分詞語擴展

商品交易會Commodities Fair

經營范圍line/scope of business

獨家經銷代理exclusive selling agency

市場準入market access

機床machine tools

汽車零部件auto parts

電子商務e-commerce; e-business

第三部分例句

請給我一個有效期為90天的C.I.F.報價,目的港為洛杉磯,報價含5%的傭金。

I’d like to hear your quotation on a C.I.F.Los Angeles basis valid for 90 days, with an inclusion of 5% angent’s commission in your quotation.

高級口譯筆記——禮儀祝詞(Ceremonial Speech)

第一部分基本詞匯

開幕/閉幕式opening/closing ceremony

開幕詞opening speech/address

致開幕詞make an opening speech

友好訪問goodwill visit

閣下Your/His/Her Honor/Excellency

貴賓distinguished guest

尊敬的市長先生Respected Mr.Mayor

遠道而來/來自大洋彼岸的朋友friends coming from a distant land/the other side of the Pacific

東道國host country

宣布……開幕declare……open

值此之際on the occasion of

借此機會take this opportunity to

以……名義in the name of

本著……精神in the spirit of

代表on the behalf of

由衷的謝意heartfelt thanks

友好款待gracious hospitality

正式邀請officioa invitation

回顧過去look back on

展望未來look ahead/look into the future

最后in closing

圓滿成功a complete success

提議祝酒propose a toast

第二部分詞語擴展

一、政治詞匯

亞太地區Asian-Pacific region

建交establishment of diplomatic relations between

互訪exchange of visit

外交政策foreign policy

一貫奉行in persistent pursuit of

平等互利equality and mutual benefit

雙邊關系bilateral relations

持久和平lasting peace

二、政治詞匯

貿易額trade volume

商業界business community

跨國公司transnational corporation

經濟強國/經濟大國/經濟列強(視具體情況翻譯)economic power

第三部分例句

1.我愿借此機會,代表我們代表團的全體成員,對我們東道主的誠摯邀請,表示真誠的謝意。

On the behalf of all the members of my mission, I would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to our host for their earnest invitation.

2.現在,我愉快地宣布第二十二屆萬國郵政聯盟大會開幕。

Now, I have the pleasure to declare the 22nd Universal Postal Congress open.

3.我很榮幸地代表中國政府和人民向來自聯合王國的代表團表示熱烈的歡迎。

I have the honor to express this warm welcome on behalf of the Chinese Government and people to the delegation from the United Kingdom.

4.我謹向各位表示最熱烈的歡迎。

I would like to extend my warmest welocme to all of you.

5.我預祝大會圓滿成功!

I wish the conference a complete success!

高級口譯筆記——外事接待(reception)

第一部分基本詞匯

日程安排schedule

預訂reserve

根據……的要求upon……request

專程造訪come all the way

精心安排a thoughtful arrangement

排憂解難help out

第二部分詞語擴展

機場大樓terminal building

候機大廳waiting hall

起飛時間departure/take-off time

抵達時間arrival time

海關the Customs

往返票round-trip ticket

入境/出境/旅游簽證entry/exit/tourist visa

免稅商店duty-free shop

豪華套房luxury suite

單/雙人房single/double room

第三部分例句

1. You must be our long-expected guest,……

2. Excuse me, I haven’t had the honor of knowing you.

3. I’m glad to have the honor of introducing……

4. Small world, isn’t it?

5. Thank you for coming all the way to our company.

6. I hop you’ll enjoy your stay here.

7. host a receptipn banquet in your honor

高級口譯筆記——稱謂口譯

一、以“總……”表示的首席長官,可選擇general、chief、head這類詞表示。

總書記general secretary

總工程師chief engineer

總會計師chief accountant

總經理general manager

總代理general agent

總教練head coach

二、一些行業的職稱頭銜,直接用“高級”或“資深”來表示,可用"senior"來稱呼。

高級記者senior reporter

高級講師senior lecturer

三、“首席”英語常用chief來表達。

首席執行官chief cxecutive officer(CEO)

首席顧問chief advisor

首席檢察官chief inspector

四、還有一些高級職務帶“長”字,例如:

參謀長chief of staff

護士長head nurse

秘書長secretary-general

五、以“副”字的表示副職的行政職務頭銜,可用vice、deputy表達。

副總統vice president

副主席vice chairman

副總理vice minister

副秘書長deputy secretary-general

副書記deputy secretary

副市長deputy mayor

六、學術頭銜的“副”職稱,常用associate表示。

副教授associate professor

副研究員associate research fellow

副審判長associate judge

副主任醫師associate doctor

七、學術頭銜中的初級職稱如“助理”,我們可以用assistant來稱呼。

助理教授assistant professor

助理研究員assistant research fellow

助理工程師assistant engineer

八、一般說來,“代理”可譯作acting,例如:

代理市長acting mayor

代理總理acting premier

代理主任acting director

九、常務”可以用“managing"表示。

常務理事managing director

常務副校長managing vice president

十、執行”可譯作executive

執行秘書executive secretary

執行主席executive chairman

十一、還有很多稱謂的英語表達方式難以歸類,這就需要我們日積月累,逐步總結。例如:

辦公室主任office manager

車間主任workshop manager

客座教授visiting professor

村長village head

稅務員tax collector

股票交易員stock dealer

十二、最后是我們國家特有的一些榮譽稱號的口譯。

勞動模范model worker

優秀員工ortstanding employee

標兵pacemaker

三好學生"triple-A" outstanding student; outstanding student

超市食品名稱英漢對照

A.肉品類(雞,豬,牛)

Fresh Grade Legs大雞腿

Fresh Grade Breast雞胸肉

Chicken Drumsticks小雞腿

Chicken Wings雞翅膀

Minced Steak絞肉

Pigs Liver豬肝

Pigs feet豬腳

Pigs Kidney豬腰

Pigs Hearts豬心

Pork Steak沒骨頭的豬排

Pork Chops連骨頭的豬排

Rolled Porkloin卷好的腰部瘦肉

Rolled Pork Belly卷好的腰部瘦肉連帶皮

Pork sausage meat做香腸的絞肉

Smoked Bacon醺肉

Pork Fillet小里肌肉

Spare Rib Pork chops帶骨的瘦肉

Spare Rib of Pork小排骨肉

Pork ribs肋骨可煮湯食用

Black Pudding黑香腸

Pork Burgers漢堡肉

Pork-pieces一塊塊的廋肉

Pork Dripping豬油滴

Lard豬油

Hock蹄膀

Casserole Pork中間帶骨的腿肉

Joint有骨的大塊肉

Stewing Beef小塊的瘦肉

Steak & Kidney牛肉塊加牛腰

Frying steak可煎食的大片牛排

Mimced Beef牛絞肉

Rump Steak大塊牛排

Leg Beef牛鍵肉

OX-Tail牛尾

OX-heart牛心

OX-Tongues牛舌

Barnsley Chops帶骨的腿肉

Shoulder Chops肩肉

Porter House Steak腰上的牛排肉

Chuck Steak頭肩肉筋、油較多

Tenderised Steak拍打過的牛排

Roll牛腸

Cowhells牛筋

Pig bag豬肚

Homeycome Tripe蜂窩牛肚

Tripe Pieces牛肚塊

Best thick seam白牛肚

B.海產類

Herring鯡

Salmon鮭

Cod鱈

Tuna鮪魚

Plaice比目魚

Octopus章魚

Squid烏賊

Dressed squid花枝

Mackerel鯖

Haddock北大西洋產的鱈魚

Trout鱒魚、適合蒸來吃

Carp鯉魚

Cod Fillets鱈魚塊,可做魚羹,或炸酥魚片都很好吃

Conger (Eel)海鰻

Sea Bream海鯉

Hake鱈魚類

Red Mullet紅鰹,可煎或紅燒來吃

Smoked Salmon熏鮭*

Smoked mackerel with crushed pepper corn帶有黑胡椒粒的熏鯖*

Herring roes鯡魚子

Boiled Cod roes鱈魚子

Oyster牡蠣

Mussel蚌、黑色、橢圓形、沒殼的即為淡菜

Crab螃蟹

Prawn蝦

Crab stick蟹肉條

Peeled Prawns蝦仁

King Prawns大蝦

Winkles田螺

Whelks Tops小螺肉

Shrimps小蝦米

Cockles小貝肉

Labster龍蝦

C.蔬果類

Potato馬鈴薯

Carrot紅蘿卜

Onion洋蔥

Aubergine茄子

Celery芹菜

White Cabbage包心菜

Red cabbage紫色包心菜

Cucumber大黃瓜

Tomato蕃茄

Radish小紅蘿卜

Mooli白蘿卜

Watercress西洋菜

Baby corn玉米尖

Sweet corn玉米

Cauliflower白花菜

Spring onions蔥

Garlic大蒜

Ginger姜

Chinese leaves大白菜

Leeks大蔥

Mustard & cress芥菜苗

Green Pepper青椒

Red pepper紅椒

Yellow pepper黃椒

Mushroom洋菇

Broccoliflorets綠花菜

Courgettes綠皮南瓜,形狀似小黃瓜,但不可生食

Coriander香菜

Dwarf Bean四季豆

Flat Beans長形平豆

Iceberg透明包心菜

Lettuce萵苣菜

Swede or Turnip蕪菁

Okra秋葵

Chillies辣椒

Eddoes小芋頭

Taro大芋頭

Sweet potato蕃薯

Spinach菠菜

Beansprots綠豆芽

Peas碗豆

Corn玉米粒

Sprot高麗小菜心

Lemon檸檬

Pear梨子

Banana香蕉

Grape葡萄

Golden apple黃綠蘋果、脆甜

Granny smith綠蘋果、較酸

Bramleys可煮食的蘋果

Peach桃子

Orange橙

Strawberry草莓

Mango芒果

Pine apple菠蘿

Kiwi奇異果

Starfruit楊桃

Honeydew-melon蜜瓜

Cherry櫻桃

Date棗子

lychee荔枝

Grape fruit葡萄柚

Coconut椰子

Fig無花果

D.其它

Long rice長米,較硬,煮前先泡一個小時

Pudding rice or short rice短米,較軟

Brown rice糙米

THAI Fragrant rice泰國香米*

Glutinous rice糯米*

Strong flour高筋面粉

Plain flour中筋面粉

Self- raising flour低筋面粉

Whole meal flour小麥面粉

Brown sugar砂糖(泡奶茶、咖啡適用)

dark Brown Sugar紅糖(感冒時可煮姜湯時用)

Custer sugar白砂糖(適用于做糕點)

Icing Sugar糖粉

Rock Sugar冰糖

Noodles面條

Instant noodles方便面

Soy sauce醬油,分生抽淺色及老抽深色兩種

Vinger醋

Cornstarch太白粉

Maltose麥芽糖

Sesame Seeds芝麻

Sesame oil麻油

Oyster sauce蠔油

Pepper胡椒

Red chilli powder辣椒粉

Sesame paste芝麻醬

Beancurd sheet腐皮

Tofu豆腐

Sago西賈米

Creamed Coconut椰油

Monosidum glutanate味精

Chinese red pepper花椒

Salt black bean豆豉

Dried fish魚干

Sea vegetable or Sea weed海帶

Green bean綠豆

Red Bean紅豆

Black bean黑豆

Red kidney bean大紅豆

Dried black mushroom冬菇

Pickled mustard-green酸菜

Silk noodles粉絲

Agar-agar燕菜

Rice-noodle米粉

Bamboo shoots竹筍罐頭

Star anise八角

Wantun skin餛飩皮

Dried chestuts干粟子

Tiger lily buds金針

Red date紅棗

Water chestnuts荸薺罐頭

Mu-er木耳

Dried shrimps蝦米

Cashewnuts腰果

口譯十大原則

1)動賓連接原則

考生在翻譯動賓短語的時候,應先考慮賓語的成分。賓語可能為名詞、名詞詞組和句子。不同成分的賓語決定了謂語的使用。比如在以下例子中“希望”的選擇面很大,既可以用hope連接句子,也可以用hope for,look forward to等連接名詞詞組,那么考生就得考慮賓語更容易翻譯成詞組或句子。因此,動賓連接原則的核心思想是“先賓語,后謂語”,翻譯會豁然開朗。

中國人民始終希望天下太平,希望各國人民友好相處。

The Chinese people are always looking forward to global peace and friendship among all nations.

The Chinese people are always hoping that the world is at peace and people of all nations will coexist friendlily.

2)時態原則

時態在翻譯中比不像想象中那么簡單,往往是考試中的一個難點。時態有時可以體現一種感情因素,特別是進行時的使用,比如在第一個例子中現在進行時的使用體現出對中華民族的一種褒揚、贊美的口吻,翻譯出了這句話的“精、氣、神”,最后一個例子中過去進行時時常表示一種“特有的行為”,通常是偏向于negative的口吻,所以我們發現這句話十有八九是美國人自己寫的。

中華民族歷來愛好自由和和平。

The Chinese people have always been cherishing freedom and peace.

The Chinese people always cherish freedom and peace.

The Chinese people are always cherishing freedom and peace.

中國過去是、現在是、將來是……

China was and remains to be …

中國人民更深感自由與和平的珍貴。

The Chinese people have cherished freedom and peace than ever.

屆時,……

At that time, ……

到2007年,上海市人均國內生產總值預計達到7500美元。

By 2007, the per capita GDP in Shanghai is expected to reach US$7500.

As a result we were going to be living in a fundamentally unmanaged economic system.

從而我們可能要生活在一個根本無法掌控的經濟體制中。

After all, China and Cuba and other targets of U.S. –led criticism in the committee were always going to vote and lobby against Washington.

畢竟中國、古巴等一些在人權委員會中受到以美國為首批評的國家,總是投票或游說反對美國政府。

3)主語確定原則

由于英語是主語顯著語(subject-prominent language),構建在主謂軸(subject-predicate pivot)上,主語決定了句法結構;漢語為語義性語言,其中主語的重要性相對較低,無主語的現象比比皆是。因此在漢英轉化中最重要的就是確定主語,主語選擇成功了,句子越翻越順;選擇失敗,考生越翻越累。主語的確定歸根結底有三種方法:使用原主語;重新確定主語;增補主語。

這一目標的實現,最直接的應該是老百姓住得更寬敞了,更舒服了。

The citizens will live more spaciously and comfortably, benefiting most directly from achieving the goal.

The idea of a national ID, however, was locked out of earlier drafts of legislation by a coalition of civil rights and ethnic groups, who opposed a requirement that all non-citizens carry identifying documents.

然而,持自由論觀點的民眾和少數民族反對一切美國公民必須隨身攜帶身份證的規定,他們結成聯盟,推翻了立法的最初幾次草案中關于實施全國統一身份證的主張。

其實,撇開數學,繞過那一大堆公式,一門學科的基本思想還是可以被我們理解和欣賞的。

To be frank, if we leave aside mathematics and bypass the abundant formulas, the basic principles of the discipline (of science) are understandable and appreciable.

They cannot control who crosses their borders either physically or culturally.

無論是外人入境,或是文化入侵,政府都已無能為力。

They have been increasingly chagrined by Washington’s tendency to ignore the international consensus on issues ranging from the use of land mines to the Kyoto climate change treaty.

從地雷禁用條款到京都防止氣候變暖條約等一些列問題,美國政府總是對國際輿論置若罔聞,使得這些(倒戈)國家越來越失望/懊惱。

4)謂語最小化原則

在漢譯英中,動詞的考察是必然的。其中動詞和其他成分的轉換也是重中之重。如果考生把所有的動詞都翻譯成動詞的話,只能說明其還屬于“入門”境界。因此在第一個例子中共出現7個動詞,而在譯文中只保留了4個動詞。所以我們在翻譯中一定要注意動詞和其他詞性的轉換,常見減少謂語的方法有:

a)把動詞變成名詞

b)使用介詞短語

c)使用分詞短語

d)多使用to表示目的的狀語

e)把并列謂語中最后一個謂語處理成“,which”的非限制性定語從句

雖然以上這些方法從本質上講都是些小打小鬧的“噱頭”,但是不重視謂語的省略一定不會取得理想的成績。

今年的亞太經濟貿易合作組織會議將主要側重兩個方面:一是加強亞太經合組織成員之間的合作,共同應對可能出現的經濟衰退,重樹信心;二是繼續推進亞太經合組織貿易投資自由化進程,推動世界貿易組織盡早開始新一輪談判。

The APEC meeting in this year will focus mainly on two aspects: one is on strengthening the cooperation among all APEC members to cope with the possible economic recession with rebuilt-up confidence; the other is on promoting the liberalization of trade and investment among all APEC members for the start of a new round of negotiations by WTO.

顯然,許多美國的傳統支持國家沒有投票支持美國,以此對美國奉行單邊主義表示不滿。

Many traditional U.S. supporters clearly withdrew their votes to signal displeasure over U.S. unilateralism.

5)動賓換序原則

在英譯漢中,遇上特別長的賓語,初學者總是根據語法習慣亦步亦趨地處理主、謂、賓,結果造成龐大的賓語,頭輕腳重,特別不符合漢語的習慣,漢語之所以不喜歡賓語從句,在于漢語喜用主謂短句,對于較長的賓語,一般有兩種處理方式:一是把謂語變成直接能夠接賓語的表達形式,如react to不必翻譯成“對…作出反應”,可變成“面對…”,這種方法在口譯中常常出現,因為口譯往往無暇考慮句式的大變動;二是把賓語先譯出,然后再譯出主謂,如第一個例子,或使用謂語的相反含義,再接上原主語,如第二個例子,sustain表示“決定了”,那反義短語就是“取決于”。

The rest of the world will have to react to this millennial economic shift to Asia, and to the rising power of China.

在新千年,經濟重心將向亞洲轉移,中國將迅速崛起,世界其他地區將不得不對此做出反應。

The project budget sustains both the existence of graduate students and the fiscal solvency of the university.

研究生是否存在,大學是否存在資金償還能力,這些都取決于項目預算。

6)句群邏輯關系原則

漢譯英中的疑點就是處理句群關系,從邏輯上區分通常有六種:

a)表示原因關系

“因為…所以”,“因此…”,“由于…”

b)表示轉折關系

“雖然…但是…”,“然而(不過)…”

c)表示條件關系

“如果…”,“假如…”,“只要…就…”,“一旦…”

d)表示讓步關系

“盡管…”,“就算…也…”,“即使…也…”

e)表示時間先后關系

“…之后”,“接著…”

f)表示結果關系

“從而…”,“導致…”

經過二十多年的快速發展,中國西部地區已奠定了一定的物質技術基礎,社會保持穩定,市場經濟體制正在逐步建立和完善,為西部經濟持續快速增長創造了有利的市場環境。

Thanks to the rapid development in the past 20-plus years, a relatively solid foundation in terms of material wealth and technology has been laid in the western region of China.

The rapid development in the past 20-plus years witnesses a relatively solid foundation in terms of material wealth and technology in the western region of China

中國將致力于建設國家創新體系,通過營造良好的環境,推進知識創新、技術創新和體制創新,這是中國實現跨世紀發展的必由之路。

Through creating a favorable background, China will be devoted to building a national system for innovation to promote the innovation in knowledge, technology and system, which is the only path/indispensable/essential for China to achieve cross-century/trans-century/century-crossing/turn-of-the-century development.

7)連接原則

高口翻譯難度的側重點在近幾年發生了一個轉換:從以前追求成語、俗語到現在語體、語言風格的怪異,比如老舍和錢鐘書的“自傳”。語言的絕對難度不難,但是形式游散,不容易連接成邏輯感強烈的英語。英語重形合,漢語重意合。所以連接原則首先要求考生具備強烈的“邏輯”使命感,多加連詞,兩三句之內就要考慮句群的關系,其次考生還要具備合句和縮句的能力,抓住主要謂語,最后換序譯法也是考生必需的技能,有時突出重點,調整句序,也是必不可少的。

書無所不讀,全無所惑,并不著急,教書做事,均甚認真,往往吃虧,也不后悔。

Not vexed by reading comprehensively though futilely, I deal seriously with teaching and handling affairs and have no regret for suffering losses.

中國加入世界貿易組織的談判已經進行了15年了。中國的立場始終如一。

China has been engaged in the talks for entry into the WTO for 15 years with its consistent stance.

8)減少of原則

漢譯英中,一出現“…的”許多學生立馬想到of…的架構,這種思維模式主要是受到了所屬關系的影響。of在英語當中主要是所屬關系,而“…的”不僅有所屬關系,而且有包含關系等,因此我們在翻譯中要看清句子的主主語——真正意義上的主語,而不必選擇句子的次主語——語法上的主語。比如在第一個例子中,主主語是“樓”,而次主語才是“質量”,因此如把此句翻成The quality of the building is poor.雖然也沒有錯,在考試中也不一定會扣分,但還是顯得比較業余。另外在最后一個例子中,譯文如譯成The development of our relations has made us not only close fiends but also brothers,就顯得特別地功利,好像表示我們關系的發展使我們成為兄弟了,而不是我們的關系。總而言之,我們并不是要刻意地減少of架構,而是把一些非定語關系的of架構轉化為其它成分。

樓的質量不好。

The building is not well built.

經濟全球化的深入發展和科學技術的迅猛進步

the furthering economic globalization and rapid/swift/speedy/prompt development of science and technology

中國的富強和發展不會對任何國家構成威脅。

A strong, prosperous and developed China will pose no threat to any countries.

我們之間關系的發展,使我們不僅成為親密的朋友,而且成為兄弟。

Our relations have so grown that bind us not only as close friends but also as brothers.

9)名詞詞組與分句互譯原則

漢語中的兩大成分地位較低,分別是賓語和定語。在英譯漢中,較長的賓語從句常常會轉化為名詞詞組,比如在第一個例句中的“how”如果翻譯為“如何化去稅款”這個賓語從句,在漢語中就顯得不倫不類,所有一些5W1H的疑問詞基本上都有可能轉化為名詞,如when(時間),where(地點),who(人選),why(原因)。此外,對于修飾語較多的名詞性短語,漢語也不喜歡用定語進行堆砌,而偏向用簡單的主謂短語,如第二個例子中把“the most skeptical Gates”翻譯成“一個持懷疑態度的蓋茨”,就不如變成主謂短語“蓋茨對此持懷疑態度”。

They provide a means by which wealthy people and corporations can in effect decide how their tax payments will be spent.

基金會提供了一種方式,可以讓有錢人和大公司能實際支配花去稅款的方式。

But the most skeptical Gates of the new millennium is someone who evinces a passion for giving and government aid.

但新千年蓋茨對此持懷疑態度,熱衷于施舍和政府援助。

Now, the debate has shifted away from the ethics of baby-making and toward the morality of cloning embryos for their cells and tissues, which might be used to treat diseases.

現在,爭論已經從制造嬰兒是否違背倫理,轉到為提取用于治療疾病的細胞和組織而克隆胚胎是否違背道德。

But such self-interest is hardly enlightened.

但這種做法只考慮個人利益,自然難以獲得支持。

The project budget sustains both the existence of graduate students and the fiscal solvency of the university.

研究生是否存在,大學是否存在資金償還能力,這些都取決于項目預算。

10)要詞原則

無論是中口還是高口翻譯篇章中,都有一些貌似十分簡單的詞,但這些詞往往是這篇文章的殺手锏,難度往往高于那些成語、俗語和專業詞。比如在第一個例子中的collectively,一般的譯者馬上會理解為“總而言之”“概括起來”的意思,只有當讀完整句的時候,才明白是把亞洲國家整體經濟規模“累加”起來,其中進行了轉性譯法,把副詞轉換為形容詞或名詞。這種詞在每次考試中至少會有一個,可以被認為是拉開差距的地方。考生如能發現其中的“弦外之音”,將會極大的鼓舞自己的士氣。

Collectively, the Asian Countries will have a larger economy than the rest of the world put together.

亞洲國家的經濟總量將超過其他國家地區的總和。

From a small beginning at the turn of the century ……

本世紀初,基金會的數量并不多。

Inside these nations there will be mass prosperity, but with a large minority in serious poverty, and a small number who are very rich.

這些國家雖然呈現出欣欣向榮的態勢,但其中還有許多處于極端貧窮的弱勢人口,還有少部分人口極端富有。

The major feature of project money, whether its source is government or business, is that it is given on a contractual basis, a different contract for each project, so that the investigator’s independence rests upon his capacity to secure a succession of contracts.

無論來自于政府或商界,項目資金的重要特點是其建立在契約上,即不同的項目可以爭取相同的項目資金,因此調研人員要取得獨立,就必須得到連續的研究項目。

The resulting patchwork of laws, people on all sides of the issue say, complicates a nationwide picture already clouded by scientific and ethnical questions over whether and how to restrict cloning or to ban it altogether.

在克隆問題上各方人士認為,關于是否限制克隆、如何限制克隆或索性禁止克隆的科學及倫理問題,已經使全國性立法變得撲朔迷離。而如今各種東拼西湊的法律,只會使全國性立法形成步履維艱。

A law that goes into effect on Jan.1 allows computer users in the state to refuse unwanted solicitations en masse and sue spammers who violate their wishers for as much as $1 million.

1月1日,加州通過一條法律,使得計算機用戶有權拒收垃圾郵件,并對郵件發送者提出訴訟,要求最高達一百萬美元的賠償。

走獸怎么叫

動物叫聲

1、獅子(lion): roar, howl;

2、老虎(tiger): roar, howl;

3、豹子(panther): howl

4、大象(elephant): trumpet;

5、豺(jackal): howl

6、狼(wolf): howl

7、狗(dog): bark,yap,yelp,bay,howl,growl,snarl,whine

8、狐(fox): bark,yelp

9、貓(cat): mew,miaow,miau,meow,meou

10、鼠(mouse): squeak,cheep,peep

11、豬(pig): grunt, whick, aqueak

12、野豬(swine): grunt

13、公豬(boar): girn

14、熊(bear): bruzz, growl

15、無尾猿(ape): gibber,gueriet

16、猴(monkey): screech, gibber, chatter, snutter, jabber, howl

17、駱駝(camel): nuzz, grunt

18、鹿(deer): call, bell, bellow

19、牛(cattle): cow,bleat

20、公牛(bull): bellow,low

21、母牛(cow): low

22、小牛(calf):bleat

23、水牛(buffalo): boo

24、羊(sheep,goat): baa, bleat

25、馬(horse): neigh,whinny,nicker

26、驢(ass,donkey): bray, hee-haw

27、兔子(rabbit): mumble

蟲子聲音

1、青蛙(frog): croak

2、蟾蜍(toad): shriek

3、蛇(snake, serpent): hiss

4、蜜蜂(bee): buzz,hum,bumble,drone

5、黃蜂(wasp): hum

6、蟋蟀(cricket): chirp(chirup)

7、甲蟲(beetle): drone,boom

8、蚱蜢(grsshopper): chirp

9、蚊子(mosquito): hum,buzz,drone

10、蒼蠅(fly): hum,buzz,drone

飛禽叫聲

1、公雞(cock): crow

2、母雞(hen): cackle,cluck

3、小雞(chicken): cheep

4、火雞(turkey): gobble

5、鴨(duck): quack

6、鵝(goose): cackle,hiss,creak,gaggle

7、鴿子(dove,pigeon): coo,crood,croud,croodle,cur

8、鵪鶉(quail): curkle

9、鳩(stock-dove): murmur

10、斑鳩(turtle-dove): wail

11、天鵝(swan): chant,cry

12、烏鴉(crow,raven): caw,croak

13、白嘴鴉(rook): caw

14、鷓鴣(partrige): call

15、鸚鵡(parrot): prat,squawk

16、孔雀(peacock): tantle,scream

17、云雀(lark): sing

18、紅雀(linnet): chirp

19、喜鵲(magpie): chatter,clatter

20、麻雀(sparrow): chirp

21、夜鶯(nightingale): warble,pip,jug,jug-jug

22、畫眉(mavis): guaver

23、布谷(cuckoo): cuckoo

24、鶴(stork): coniat

25、白鶴(crane): whoop

26、燕(swallow): chirp,twitter

27、海鷗(gull):mew

28、鷹(eagle): scream

各類物體的響聲

1、金屬磕碰聲當啷clank,clang

2、形容金屬的響聲當當rattle

3、金屬、瓷器連續撞擊聲丁零當啷jingle,jangle,cling-clang

4、鼓聲、敲門聲咚咚rub-a dub,rat-tat,rat-a-tat

5、脆響的(關門)聲吧嗒clik

6、敲打木頭聲梆梆rat-tat,rat-at

7、重物落下聲咕咚thud,splash,plump

8、東西傾倒聲嘩啦crash,clank

9、風吹動樹枝葉聲颯颯sough,rustle

10、樹枝等折斷聲嘎巴crack,snap

11、不大的寒風聲瑟瑟rustle

12、踩沙子、飛沙擊物或風吹草木沙沙、颯颯rustle

13、飛機螺旋槳轉動呼呼whirr

14、雨點敲擊房頂噼里啪啦patter

15、水流動聲拔拉splash,gurgle

16、物體受壓嘎吱creak

17、溪水、泉水流動聲潺潺murmur,babble,purl

18、液體、沸騰、水流涌出或大口喝水聲咕嘟babble,gurgle

19、重物落地聲撲通flop,thump,splash,pit-a-pat

20、笑聲、水、氣擠出聲撲哧titter,snigger,fizz

21、雷聲、爆炸聲、機器聲隆隆hum,rumble,roll

22、汽笛或喇叭聲嗚嗚toot,hoot,zoom

23、油在鍋里滋滋sizzle

24、鞭炮爆炸聲噼啪pop

25、腳踏樓板聲登登clump

26、斷裂聲喀嚓crack. snap

下面看看朱生豪先生如何處理的(譯莎士比亞的小詩)

Song: Hark, Hark!歌:聽啊!聽!

Hark, Hark!聽啊!聽!

Bow-woo.汪!汪!

The watching dogs bark!犬在門前狂吠!

Bow-woo.汪!汪!

Hark, Hark! I hear聽啊!聽!我聽見

The strain of strutting chanticlear伸頸的雄雞

Cry,"Cock-a-doodle-doo.l"喔喔啼

擬聲詞的常見三種翻譯處理方法:

一、譯為漢語對應的擬聲詞,有的譯為獨詞句,有的譯為動詞或名詞的輔助成分。

1.Crack! The stick broke in two.

喀嚓!棒子斷為兩截。

2.Only the venliator in the cellar window kept up a cealess rattle.

只有地下室窗戶上的鼓風機發出無休無止的呼呼聲。

3.Round the corner of CroscentBay, between the pile-up masses of broken rock, a flock of sheep came pattering.

沿著新月海灣的地方,從一堆堆破碎的巖石堆中,一群羊叭嗒叭嗒地跑了過來。

二、有時可以將英文的擬聲詞譯為漢語中較為抽象的“..........的叫,...........聲”,有的則直敘其動作。

1.The cock in the yard crowed its first round.

院子里的雄雞已經叫頭遍了。

2. He felt as if he must shout and sing, he seemed to hear about him the rustle of unceasing and inmumberable wings.

他感到簡直要大喊大唱,耳際仿佛傳來無數翅膀的拍擊聲。

3. They splashed through the mire to the village.

他們一路踏著泥水向村子去。

三、為增加效果,即使英文未出現擬聲詞,翻譯時添加擬聲詞。

1.The logs were burning briskly in the fire.

木柴在火中嗶嗶剝剝燒的正旺。

2.“Impartinent!” snorted Imalds.

伊梅爾達鼻子哼了聲“沒家教!”

3.Then a dog began to howl somewhere ina a farm house far down the road--a long, agonized wailing, as if from fear.

接著,路盡頭一所農舍附近響起狗的汪汪聲,那是一聲長長的哀鳴,似乎是因恐懼而發出的驚恐之聲。

梭羅描寫沃爾登湖冬景的一句

I seldom opened my door in a winter evening without hearing it; Hoo hoo hoo, hooner hoo, sounded sonorously, and the first three syllables accented somewhat like how deardo; or sometimes hoo hoo only.

冬季傍晚,我一打開門常常聽到“唿——唿——唿,唿——唿”的鳥叫聲,聲音哼悅耳,前三個音節聽起來有點象英語的“你好哇!”有時便只是鳥叫而已。

口譯中需要強記的詞組

Give the floor to請…發言

It is a great pleasure for me to我很榮幸…

Relevant issues相關問題

Updated research research result最新的調查結果

Attach the importance to對…給予重視

Lead-edge technologies領先技術

Minister Counselor公使

Natural heritage自然遺產

Shared concern共同關心的問題

Well-deserved reputation良好的信譽

對…表示衷心的感謝express sincere gratitude to

請…講話Let’ s welcome to give a speech

雙邊會議bilateral conference

以掌聲對…表示的最熱烈的歡迎propose the warmest applause to

主辦單位sponsor

頒獎儀式the Award Ceremony

賀詞greeting speech

隆重舉行observe the grand opening of

請…頒獎Let’s invite to present the award

取得圓滿成功achieve complete ceremony

全球慶典global celebration ceremony

宣布…結束declare the closing of

請全體起立,奏國歌Please rise for the national anthem.

Collective stewardship集體管理

Competitive job market充滿競爭的就業市場

Financial institutions金融機構

Forward-looking進取

Gross National Product國民生產總值

Meet the challenges迎接挑戰

Public authorities公共機構

Regulatory mechanism法規機制

The threshold of our transition into the new millenmum跨越新千年的門檻

UNCHS (United Nations Centre for Human Settlements)聯合國人居中心

Urban residents城市居民

Well-serviced formal city服務齊全的高尚城市

把…列為重要內容place as the priority

不放松工作never neglect the work

節約用水water conservation

對…表示衷心祝賀extend our sincere congratulations on

節約用水先進城市model city of water conservation

使…取得預期效果attain the results expected

授予…光榮稱號confer honorable awards on

為…而奮斗strive for

嚴重缺水城市a city of severe water shortage

有關單位units concerned

與…比有差距compared with ,there is still some way to go

預祝…圓滿成功wish a complete success

開源與節流并重broaden sources of income &reduce expenditure

對外貿易港口seaport for foreign trade

國內生產總值National Gross Products

歡聚一堂merrily gather

活躍的經濟帶vigorous economic region

基礎雄厚solid foundation

留下最美好的印象may you have a most pleasant impression

盛世the grand occasion

祝愿在停留愉快wish a pleasant stay

綜合性商港comprehensive commercial seaport

春意盎然spring is very much in the air

forest coverage森林覆蓋率

global warming全球變暖

principal element主要因素

toxic emission廢氣排放

迸發出心靈的火花ignite the sparks of understanding

建立合作橋梁build the bridge for cooperation

內容翔實substantial in content

能源大省major province of energy

日程緊湊tight in schedule

call upon號召

conservation benefits節水的好處

industrial reuse and recycling工業中水利用

pollution fines污染罰款

urban water conservation城市節水

water saving fixtures節水裝置

地區經濟regional economic

港口經營多元化diversification in port operation

責任和義務perform our duties and fulfill our obligations

地區行業盛會a well-known regional event of the industry

發起港initiating ports

break free沖破藩籬

civil society民間團體

ethnic lines種族

genuine partnership真正的合作伙伴

squatter settlements違章建筑區

without access to享受不到

暢所欲言open dialogues

計劃經濟的束縛the bounding of planning economy

緊迫問題pressing issues

科教興省和走可持續發展的道路vitalize the province by science and technology and sustainable development

空前膨脹unprecedentedly inflated

控制增長勢頭curb the trend of steep rise

面臨嚴峻挑戰face severe challenges

清醒地看到acutely aware

生態惡化ecological deterioration

提高意識strengthen the awareness

相互尊重,求同存異,平等互利,優勢互補,借鑒經驗,拓展合作,立足當前,著眼未來respect each other, seek the common ground while putting aside difference, enjoy equality and mutual benefits, complement each other’s advantages, learn each other’s experience, expand the cooperation, stand from the present and look forward to the future

以此會議為契機take the opportunity of this seminar

滯后lag behind

轉軌建制過程緩慢the tr4ansition of mechanism is slow

總結經驗教訓draw lessons from the past

community development oriented以發展社區為宗旨的

deserved winners當之無愧的獲獎者

ethnic minorities少數民族

gainful employment有報酬的

gender issues性別問題

handicraft works手工藝品

income generation工薪階層

in-depth knowledge深入了解

the handicapped殘疾人

不求最大,但求最好seek the best instead of the largest

產業結構industrial structure

城鄉一體化the unified design between the city and the countryside

短期行為short-term conduct

房地產開發real estate development

扶貧幫困help and support the poor

公共綠地public lawn

公用事業public utilities

會展中心convention center

基建規模infrastructure scale

精品意識consciousness for the best

精品住宅區model human settlements

企業效益enterprise revenue

文明乘車civil bus ride

希望工程Hope Project

以人為本human centered

主辦城市the host city

綜合治理comprehensively administer

economic recession經濟蕭條

press conference記者招待會

rough diamond鉆坯

sophisticated machine先進機器

staggering growth強勁的增長

trade union業界

umbrella name統稱

瀕臨停產邊緣be close to production collapse

反省reflect on

回報期period of investment return

痛定思痛recall a painful experience

臥薪嘗膽endure present hardships to revive

興旺期blossom period

develop and flourish茁壯成長

expanding export earner不斷擴展的出口創匯者

impose stringent rules定下嚴格規則

市場波動market fluctuation

協會章程association charter

總經營額total business revenue

end-user用人單位

entry-level學徒期

from square one從頭開始

high-caliber高水平的

instill or reinforce灌輸或強化

job specification工作性質

localization programs本土化項目

performance appraisal表現評估

不斷調整和日趨完善的階段the stage of constant adjustment and improvement

產學研一體化的辦學機制the educational mechanism of combining learning with research and production

成人學歷教育,高等教育自學考試continuing education and self-study examination of higher education

初露端倪reveal its importance for the first time

翻譯導游tourist interpreter

復合型,應用型管理人才versatile and practical management talents

結構性調整structural adjustment

民俗風情customs and habits

相伴而生be accompanied by

學術領域academic sector

應勢而生come into existence as the situation requires

在職培訓part-time training

專業方向professional emphasis

資格考試qualification test

TOPICAL

The Economic Commission for Europe歐洲經濟委員會

A world-wide reputation譽滿全球

Conference center會議中心

The world Health Organization世界衛生組織

International civil servants國際事務公務員

International press center國際新聞中心

Works of art藝術品

International trading center國際貿易中心

Rich cultural blend豐富多彩的文化交融

Holiday resort旅游勝地

Natural reserves自然保護區

Feudal dynasty封建王朝

中國革命歷史博物館the Museum of the Chinese Revolution

一座歷史豐碑a historical monument

快節奏的社會fast-tempo society

專題展覽exhibitions on special subject

實地考察on-the-spot investigaion

經歷了數千年的風吹雨打being beaten by elements for thousands of years

古典藝術精品classical art treasures

世界文化遺產World Cultural Heritage

紫禁城the Forbidden City

文物寶庫a treasure house of cultural relics

私人收藏家personal collector

securities exchanges證券交易所

stock exchanges股票交易所

systematic market process有組織的買賣過程

major corporation大公司

New York Stock Exchange紐約證券交易所

Tax harmonization協調稅收

Hot topic熱門話題

European Union歐盟

Driving force推動力

Contemplate on the harmonization統一的期望

國際貨幣組織International Monetary Fund

國內需求domestic demand

經濟全球化economic globalization

雙邊渠道bilateral channels

亞太經合組織Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

金融危機financial crisis

廣泛關注arouse wide concern

國際社會international community

公正合理的國際經濟新秩序a new and reasonable international economic order

從大局出發proceed from the whole situation

財政政策financial policy

共同繁榮common prosperity

貿易投資自由化trade and investment liberalization

日新月異progress with each passing day

知識經濟knowledge economy

faulty members教職工

subscribes to訂閱

journals and periodicals雜志期刊

recreations and athletic facilities娛樂體育設施

arts department文科系

applied science應用科學

recipients of Nobel Prize諾貝爾獎金獲得者

intellectual and personal qualities文化和個人素質

living expenses生活費

sense of community團隊意識

成人教育學院continuing education school

仿真實驗室simulation laboratory

教育部Ministry of Education

土木工程civil engineering

全國重點大學national key university

信息技術information technology

函授生correspondence student

外國留學生international student

教育展覽會Education Exhibition

組委會organizing committee

主要內容main component

熱點話題much-talked-about topic

共同關心的信息mutually concerned information

fresh water resource潔水資源

over the last couple of decades在過去的二十年里

land available for farming適耕地

fresh water available可用清潔水

emerging economies新興經濟

global warming全球變暖

ecological crisis生態危機

path to prosperity通向繁榮之路

seize the opportunity抓住機遇

remarkable environmental progress引人注目的環境

垃圾處理garbage disposal

生活必需品the bare necessities of life

消費品consumer goods

消費習慣consuming habit

捕魚量the volume of fishing

造紙業paper-making industry

木材儲量timber reserves

森林覆蓋面積forest-covering area

inward investment對內投資

entrepreneurship創業精神

pay tribute to表示敬意

subsidies and grants津貼和撥款

problem of terrorism恐怖主義問題

gave their lives to the highest calling將生命獻給了最崇高的事業

target of terrorism恐怖主義的目標

intensified our effort加強力量

bring to justice使歸案受審

國際條約international treaties

世界知識產權組織World Intellectual Property Organization

私營部門the private sector

知識產權intellectual property

總干事Director Geneor

在進入新的千年之際at the threshold of the new millennium

成員國member countries

綱領性文件programmatic document

基本人權fundamental human rights

殖民枷鎖colonialist shackles

任重道遠the burden is heavy and the road is long

internet phone industry網絡電話業

vast potential for future development廣闊的發展前景

telephone sound quality電話音質

instantaneous transmission即時傳輸

GPS(Global Positioning System)全球衛星定位系統

Relay station中繼站

Intelligent traffic management systems智能交通管理系統

分子生物學Molecular biology

能源綜合利用comprehensive utilization of energy

認識科學cognitive science

生產力productive force

推動力量driving force

相對論the theory of relativity

行為科學behavior science

知識科學knowledge economy

新興產業rising economy

層出不窮emerge one after another

科教興國戰略the strategy of economic development through science-technology and education

可持續發展sustainable development

試點工程pilot program

嚴峻挑戰serious challenges

運行機制operational mechanism

中國科學院Chinese Academy of Sciences

綜合國力the overall national strength

磁懸浮鐵路magnetic suspended railway

root causes根本原因

juvenile crime bill青少年犯罪

idle talk閑聊

easy access to輕易接近

zero tolerance絕不容忍

balanced budget預算平衡

step up to its responsibilities擔負起責任

law enforcement professionals執法者

debit card提款卡

magnetic stripe磁條

parking meter停車計費表

personal identification number密碼

pull double duty具備雙重功能

electronic versions電子交易

chip-enhanced versions加強性芯片

be hot for the idea熱衷于這個主意

遙控器remote controller

無孔不入all pervasive

增強性能strengthen the property

減少故障to reduce the breakdown

原動力motive power

高架鐵路aerial train

汽車廢氣的排放discharge of automobile exhaust fumes

毗鄰而居be adjacent to

state-of-the art最新型的,最優良的

three-dimensional三維的,立體的

ground-breaking開拓性的,獨創的

organizing committee組委會

innovative approach創新方法

marketing partner市場合作伙伴

a giant leap into the future走向未來的一次飛躍

cash for votes用錢拉選票

bribery scandal賄賂丑聞

草地網球lawn tennis

發球區service court

處于執牛耳的地位occupy a leading position

體育道德精神sportsmanship

以全體運動員的名義in the name of all the athletes

借助不正當的手段resort to unjust means

螞蟻和蚱蜢

原文:

On a cold, frosty day an ant was dragging out some of the corn which he had laid up in the summertime, to dry it .A grasshopper, half perished with hunger, besought the ant to give him a morsel of to preserve his life. "What were you doing, "said the ant, "this last summer ?""Oh," said the grasshopper,"I was not idle .I kept singing all the summer long ."said the ant, laughing and shutting up his granary ."Since you could sing all summer, you may dance all winter."

Winter finds out what summer lays by.

譯文:

在寒冷,結霜的天氣,一只螞蟻拖曳出一些夏天儲存起來的玉米,想晾干。一只蚱蜢,餓的要死,懇求螞蟻給他一些食物讓他保住性命。螞蟻說:"那你整個夏天在干什么?"蚱蜢說:"我并不閑著,我整個夏天都在歌唱。"螞蟻笑著關閉了他的谷倉,說:"你可以在整個夏天歌唱,那你也可能整個冬天都跳舞。"

冬天都找出夏天在干什么?

詞匯:

laid up儲存

a morsel of一些,些許

granary谷倉

狐貍和烏鴉

原文:

A crow had snatched a goodly piece of cheese out of a window, and flew with it into a high tree, intent on enjoying her prize. A fox spied the dainty morsel, and thus he planned his approaches, "Oh, crow, "said he, "how beautiful are thy wings ! how bright thine eye! How graceful thy neck! Thy breast is the breast of an eagle ! thy claws-I beg pardon-thy talons, are a match for all the beasts for the field, oh, that such a bird should be dumb, and want only a voice."the crow, pleased with the flattery, and chuckling to think how she would surprise the fox with her caw, opened her mouth. Down dropped the cheese! Snapping it up, the fox observed, as he walked away, that whatever he had remarked of her beauty, he had said nothing yet of her brains.

Men seldom flatter without some private end in view, and they who listen to such music may expect to have to pay the piper.

譯文:

一只烏鴉從一個窗戶里叼出了一快相當大的干酪,飛上了一棵高數,一心想享享口福,吃掉她奪來的這快東西,一只狐貍發現了這塊美味的食物,就計劃去接近她,"哦,烏鴉"他說,"你的翅膀多么漂亮啊!你的眼睛多么明亮啊,你的脖子多么嬌美!你的胸脯和鷹一樣!你的爪子,請原諒我,你的鐵爪足以和所有的野獸對抗,哦,多么可惜,這樣一只鳥竟是一只啞巴,只缺少一副喉嚨了!"烏鴉聽了這甜言蜜語,心理很高興,他得意地心里想,如果我哇哇地叫起來將使狐貍感到多么驚奇,于是他就張開了嘴。干酪拍地掉下去了!狐貍叼起干酪,一邊走開,一邊批評地說,不論他怎么吹噓她的美貌,可是他還沒談論他的智慧。

諂媚人的人很少是沒有自私打算的,而傾聽這種音樂的人則勢必要出錢。

詞匯:

snatched搶奪

a goodly piece of相當大一塊

spied偵察出,發現

dainty morsel好吃的東西

thy你的(古語)

thine你的(古語)

a match for ……的對手

flattery奉承

chuckling暗自得意

Snapping it up猛地咬住

in view企望

to pay the piper負擔費用,承擔代價

虛榮的八哥

原文:

A jackdaw, as vain and conceited as jackdaw could be, picked up the feathers which some peacocks had shed, stuck them amongst his own, and despising his old companions, introduced himself with the greatest assurance into a flock of those beautiful birds .They, instantly detecting the intruder, stripped him of his borrowed plumes, and falling upon him with their beaks sent him about his business .The unlucky jackdaw, sorely punished and deeply sorrowing, betook himself to his former companions, and would have flocked with them again as if nothing had happened .But they, recollecting what airs he had given himself, drummed him out of their society, while one of those whom he had so lately despised, read him this lecture:"Had you been contented with what nature made you, you would have escaped the chastisement of you r betters and also the contempt of you r equals。”

譯文:

一只自負到極點的八哥鳥,撿起了一些孔雀脫落下來的羽毛,插在自己的羽毛中,于是就看不起自己的老伙伴了,滿懷信心地走到了那些美麗的鳥群中。他們立刻發覺了這個闖進來的家伙,拔掉了他身上撿來的羽毛,并且用嘴啄他,把他趕了出去,不幸的八哥受到了嚴重的懲罰,感到非常難過,于是又去投奔自己的老伙伴,滿想若無其事地又和他們混在一起,但是他們想起了過去他那副驕傲自大的神氣就把他從隊伍中轟了出來,不久以前曾受過他輕視的一個伙伴教訓他說:"如果你過去滿足于你自己的天生模樣,你就不會受到比你美的人的懲罰,也不會受到跟你相同的人的鄙視了。"

詞匯:

vain虛榮的,徒勞的

jackdaw八哥,寒鴉

peacock孔雀

with the greatest assurance滿懷信心地

falling upon攻擊

sent him about his business把他趕出去

drummed...out逐出

read him this lecture教訓他

chastisement懲罰

狐貍和山羊

原文:

A fox had fallen into a well, and had been casting about for a long time how he should get out again, when at length a goat came to the place, and wanting to drink, asked Reynard whether the water was good, and of there was plenty of it .The fox, dissembling the real danger of his case, replied :"come down, my friend, the water is so good that I can not drink enough of it, and so aboundant that it can not be exhausted ."Upon this the goat without any more ado leaped in, when the fox, taking advantage of his friend's horns, as nimbly leaped out, and coolly remarked to the poor deluded goat :"if you had half as much brains as you have beard, you would have looked before you leaped."

譯文:

一只狐貍掉在一口井里,轉了很久怎樣再跳上去,最后一只山羊來到這里,他正想喝水,便問狐貍這水好不好,還多不多,狐貍掩飾起他的真實危險處境,回答說:"下來吧,我的朋友,這水好得使我喝不夠,而且多的用不完。"于是山羊立刻跳了井里,狐貍踩著他朋友的角,敏捷地跳了上去,并且冷淡地對受了騙的可憐的山羊說:"如果你的腦子有你胡子一半多,你就會先思而后行了。"

詞匯:

casting about來回走,想方設法

at length最后

Reynard狐貍的通稱

without any more ado不費吹灰之力

taking advantage of利用

look before you leap三思而后行

獅子和牛

原文:

Three bulls fed in a field together in the greatest peace and amity .A lion had long watched them in the hope of making prize of them, but found that there was little chance for him so long as they kept all together .He therefore began secretly to spread evil and slanderous reports of one against the other ,till he had formented a jealousy and distrust amongst them . No sooner did the lion see that they avoided one another ,and fed each by himself apart ,than he fell upon them ,and so made an easy prey of them all.

The quarrels of friends are the opportunities of foes.

譯文:

有三頭牛,他們極其友好和睦地在一起在野外吃草,一頭獅子窺視了很久,想逮住他們,但是覺得只要他們聚在一起,就得不到機會。因此他開始暗地里散布流言蜚語,說這一個跟另一個作對,直到他們之間制造了妒忌和不信任。獅子一看到他們各奔東西、分頭吃草的時候,就馬上向他們一個一個的進攻了。這樣他就輕而易舉地把他們全吃光了。

朋友間的不知,就是敵人進攻的機會。

詞匯:

making prize of逮住

fell upon them向他們攻擊

豹和狐貍

原文:

A Leopard and a fox had a contest which was the finer creature of the two ,the leopard put forward the beauty of its numberless spots ,but the fox replied: "It is better to have a versatile mind than a variegated body.

譯文:

一只豹和一只狐貍在爭論誰好誰不好,豹提出他有數不盡的美麗斑點,而狐貍回答說:"有多方面的智力比有多種顏色的身體強。

詞匯:

Leopard獵豹

versatile多方面的

variegated多彩的

熊與狐貍

原文:

A bear used to boast of his excessive love for man.saying that he never worried or mauled him when dead .The fox observed .with a smile :"I should have thought more of profession if you never eaat him alive ."

Better save a man from dying than slalve him when dead.

譯文:

一只熊總喜歡夸耀自己很愛人,他說人死了之后,他從來不咬他或傷害他,狐貍笑著說:"假如你從來不吃活人的話,我就會更重視你所說的話了。"

拯救一個人使他不死,勝過在他死后說些安慰的話。

青蛙和牛

原文:

An ox, grazing in a swampy meadow, chanced to set his foot among a parcel of young frogs, and crushed nearly the whole brood to death .One that escaped ran off to his mother with the dreadful news."and ,oh ,mother !"said he ,"it was a beast -such a big four footed beast!-that did it .""Big?" quoth the old frog , "How big? Was it as big" -- and she puffed herself out to a great degree-"as big as this ?""oh!"said the little one ,"a great deal bigger than that .""well, was it so big ?"and she swelled herself out yet mere ."Indeed ,mother ,but it was ,and of you were to burst yourself you would never reach half its size."provoked at such a disparagement of her powers, the old frog made one more trial ,and burst herself indeed.

So men are ruined by attempting greatness to which they have no claim.

譯文:

一頭牛在一快泥濘的草地上吃草,偶然把腳踏在一堆小青蛙當中,幾乎把所有的幼蛙踩死。脫險的一個帶著這可怕的消息跑到他母親那里去了。"啊,母親!"他說"是一只野獸-那樣一只有四只腳的大野獸-踩的。""大嗎?"老青蛙說。"多大?"她股足了氣把自己脹得大大的說:"他像這樣的嗎?""啊!"小青蛙說,"比那大多了。""哦,有這么大嗎?"她鼓著氣脹地更大了。"真的,母親,但確實如此,即使你脹破了自己,也不夠他一半大。"老青蛙看到自己的力氣受到輕視很是激怒,于是又鼓了一下氣,果然這次脹破了自己。

妄自尊大的人必將自取滅亡的。

詞匯:

grazing吃草

a parcel of一群

brood一窩

quoth說(古代)

puffed herself out鼓氣把自己吹大

disparagement輕視

狼與鶴

原文:

A Wolf had got a bone stuck in his throat and in the greatest agony ran up and down, beseeching every animal he met to relieve him, at the same time hinting at a very handsome reward to the successful operator. A Crane, moved by his entreaties and promises, ventured her long neck down the Wolf's throat, and drew out the bone. She then modestly for the promised reward. To which the Wolf, grinning and showing his teeth, replied with seeming indignation: "Ungreateful creature! to ask for any other reward than that you have put you head into a wolf's jaws and brought it safe again!"

Those who are charitable only in the hope of a return must not be surprised if in their dealings with evil men, they meet with more jeers than thanks.

詞匯:

in the great agony極其痛苦

with seeming indignation充滿怒氣

hinting at暗示

老鬣狗

原文:

A Hound, who had been excellent one in his time, and had done good service to his master in the field, at length become worn out with the weight of years and trouble. One day, when hunting the wild boar, he seized the creature by the ear, but his teeth giving way, he was forced to let go his hold, and the boar escaped. Upon this the huntsman, coming up, severely rate him. But the feeble Dog replied: "Spare your old servant! it was the power not not the will that failed me. Remember rather what I was, than abuse me for what I am.

詞匯:

in his time想當年

at length后來,最后

worn out累垮了

the weight of years and trouble長年勞累

seized ... by the ear咬住...的耳朵

give way讓步

鵝與鶴

原文:

Some Geese and some Cranes fed together in the same field. One day the sportsmen came suddenly down upon them. The Cranes being light of body, flew off in a moment; but the geese, weighted down by their fat, were all taken.

In civil commotions, they fare best who have least to fetter them.

詞匯:

geese鵝(復數)

crane鶴

come suddenly down upon突然襲擊

weighted down過重而墜

have least to fetter>最少牽掛

母獅子

原文:

There was a great stir made among all the Beasts, which could boast of largest family. So they came to the Lioness. "And how many," said , "do you have at a birth?" "One," said she, grimly, "but that one is a lion."

Quality comes before quantity.

譯文:

一場大比拼在所有野獸中展開了,看看誰敢夸耀自己的家族最大。眾野獸來到母獅子跟前,問道:“你一胎能生產幾個?”“一個”,獅子兇橫地說,“但那是一頭獅子”。

質量重于數量。

詞匯:

stir轟動,騷動

boast of自夸

at a birth一胎

grimly冷酷地,可怕地

鷹和箭

原文:

A Bowman took aim at an Eagle and hit him in the heart. As the Eagle turned his head in the agonies of death, he saw that the Arrow was winged with his own feathers. "How much sharper," said he, "are the wounds made by weapons which we ourselves have supplied!"

詞匯:

bowman弓箭手

took aim at瞄準

in the agonies of death疼得死去活來

was winged配箭翎

sharper(疼痛)更劇烈

大山分娩

原文:

In days of yore, a mighty runmbling was heard in a mountain. It was said to be in labor, and multitudes flocked together, from far and near, to see what it would produce. After long expectation and many wise conjectures from the by-standers -- out popped a Mouse!

The story applies those magnificent promises end in a paltry performance.

譯文:

古時候,在一座山里發出了一陣隆隆巨響,據說這是大山要臨產了。人群從四面八方聚集起來,觀看大山會生出什么后代。大家企盼了許久,并且作了許多聰明的推測,結果從那里跳出一只老鼠。

這個故事說的是,雷聲大,雨點小。

詞匯:

In days of yore古時候

in labor臨產

multitudes flocked together人群聚集

by-standers旁觀者

out popped跳出

paltry微不足道的

樹和斧子

原文:

A Woodman came into a forest to ask the Trees to give him a handle for Ax. It seemed so modest a request that the principal tree at once agreed to it, and it was settled among them that the plain, homely Ash should furnish what was wanted. No sooner had the Woodman fitted the staff to his purpose ,than he began laying about him on all side. felling the whole matter too late, whispered to the Cedar: "the first concession has lost all ;if we has not a sacrificed our humble neighbor, we might have yet stood for ages ourselves."

譯文:

有一個樵夫來到森林里,要求樹給他一跟斧柄,看來他的請求非常謙虛,立刻得到了樹的首領的同意。他們決定由平凡而樸素的白楊樹來提供所需要的東西。樵夫剛按好斧柄,就開始到處亂砍,森林里最高的樹都砍倒了,樹林現在察覺大勢已去,就小聲對衫樹說:"第一次的讓步已失去了一切。如果我們不犧牲我們的小小的鄰居,我們自己還可以活無數年呢。"

詞匯:

the principal tree領頭樹

was settled among them大家商定

no sooner...than...一……就……

laying about him向他四周亂砍

might have yet stood for ages也許還能活幾百年

旅行者和熊

原文:

Two friends were traveling on the same road together, when they met with a bear .The one, in great fear, without a thought of his companion, climbed up into a tree, and hid himself .The other, seeing that he had on chance single-handed against the bear, had nothing left but to throw himself on the ground and feign to be dead, for he had heard that the bear will never touch a dead body .A s he thus lay, the bear came up to his head, muzzling and snuffing at his nose, and ears, and heart, but the immovably held his breath, and the beast, supposing him to be dead, walked away .When the bear was fairly out of sight, his companion came down out of the tree, and asked what it was that the bear whispered to him-"for"says he, "I observed he put his mouth very close to your ear . ""why,"replies the other, "it was no great secret, he only bid me have a care how I kept company with those who, when they get into a difficulty, leave their friends in a lurch."

詞匯:

single-handed獨自一人,孤立無援

lurch危難

一捆木柴

原文:

A Husbandman who had a quarrelsome family ,after having tried in vain to reconcile them by words ,thought he might more readily prevail by an example .So he called his sons and bid them lay a bundle of sticks before him .Then ,having tied them into a fagot, he told the lads ,one after the other ,to take it up and break it .They all tied ,but tried in vain .Then untying the fagot ,he gave them the sticks to break one by one .This they did with the greatest ease .Then said the father:"Thus you ,my sons ,as long as you remain united ,are a match for all you enemies ;but differ and separate ,and you are undone."

Union is strength.

譯文:

一個農夫,家庭不和睦,用言語勸告大家和好,總是無效,最后他想,用實際例子可能容易說服他們。于是他把兒子都叫來,吩咐他們抱一捆火柴放在他的面前。他把火柴捆成一捆,接著叫這些孩子挨次拿起來折斷它,一個個都試過了,但都沒有折斷,接著他解了捆,一根一根地給他們折,他們都輕而易舉地折斷了。這時父親說:"孩子們,只要我們團結一致,你們就能對付一切敵人;但是如果意見不合,各自東西,那么你們一定要失敗。"

團結就是力量。

詞匯:

Husbandman農夫

fagot一捆

a match for ……的對手

守財奴

原文:

A Miser, to make sure of his property, sold all that he had had converted it into a great lump of gold, which he hid in a hole in the ground, and went continually to visit and inspect it. This roused the curiosity of one of his workmen, who, suspecting that there was a treasure, when his master's back was turned went to the spot and stole it away. When the Miser returned and found the place empty, he wept and tore his hair. But a neighbor who saw him in this extravagant grief, and learned the cause of it, said: "Fret thyself no longer, but take a stone and put it in the same place, and think that it is your lump of gold; for, as you never meant to use it, the one will do you as much gold as the other."

The worth of money is not in its possession, but in its use.

譯文:

一個守財奴,為了確保他的財產,賣掉所有家當換成了一大塊金子,埋在一個地洞里,并且不時地去查看,這引起了手下一個雇工的好奇。雇工猜測那里肯定有寶貝,趁主人離開之際,他來到埋藏地點,把金子偷走了。當守財奴回來發現金子不翼而飛,便痛哭流涕,亂撮頭發。一個鄰人見狀問明原由后說“你也別太痛苦了,拿一塊石頭再埋在原地,就當是那塊金子好了,因為既然你永遠不想用它,那么兩者不是一回事嗎”。

金錢的價值不在于擁有,而在于使用。

詞匯:

extravagant過分的

thyself = yourself

人與賽特

原文:

A Man and a Satyr having struck up an acquaintance, sat down together to eat. The day being wintry and cold, the Man put his fingers to his mouse and blew opon them. "What's that for, my friend?" asked the Satyr. " My hands are so cold," said the Man, "I do it to warm them." In a little while some hot food was placed before them, and the Man, raising the dish to his mouse, again blew opon it. "And what's the meaning of that, now?" said the Satyr. "Oh," replied the Man, "my porridge is so hot, I do it to cool it." "Nay, then," said the Satyr, "from this moment I renounce your friendship, for I will have nothing to do with one who blows hot and cold with the same mouse."

譯文:

一個人與賽特偶然相識,坐在一起吃東西。正值冬季,天氣很冷,那人把手放在嘴邊哈氣。賽特問道“我的朋友,那是干嗎?”這人說“我的手太冷了,這是為了取暖”。過了一會兒,熱騰騰的食物端上來了,那人把碟子舉到嘴邊又吹了起來,賽特問“這又是干嗎?”,那人說“哦,我的粥太燙了,我把他吹涼些”。賽特說“從現在起,我要與你絕交,因為我不想和一個反復無常的人做朋友”。

詞匯:

atyr賽特(希臘神話中半人半羊的神)

strike up an acquaintance偶然成為朋友

porridge粥renounce拒絕,放棄

Sources:

1.《中式英語》戴丹妮主編

2.《翻譯的技巧》錢歌川編著

3.《漢英詞語翻譯漫話》陳忠誠著

4.《現代英語用法詞典》張道真編5.《漢譯英一語多說300例》錢冠連編6.《英語慣用法大詞典》王福禎徐達山主編

7.《英語常見問題解答大詞典》趙振才編著

8.《實用英語正誤詞典》本詞典編寫組編

9. Dictionary of American Slang ---Compiled and Edited by Harold Wentworth and Stuart Berg Flexner

01.有他這顆掃帚星,什么事情都辦不成。

[誤] With a comet like him, nothing can be accomplished. [正] With a jinx like him, nothing can be accomplished.

注:“掃帚星”是中國人對“慧星”(comet)的俗稱,因其后面象拖著的一條像掃帚一樣的長尾巴而得名。在中國古代,“掃帚星”被認為是災難的預兆,并被用來比喻不吉利的人或事;禍根:(person or thing that is thought to bring)bad luck(to sb/sth);curse。英語的comet雖然沒有這層含義,但卻有一個對應的說法,即jinx。例:There‘s a jinx on/Someone‘s put a jinx on this car: it‘s always giving me trouble. “這輛汽車上有什么妨人的東西,總給我找麻煩”。

02.蘿卜青菜,各有所愛。

[誤] Some prefer radish but others prefer cabbage. [正] Tastes differ.

注:Tastes differ/vary是句英語諺語,除此以外,原句還可翻譯成No dish suits all tastes或You can never make everyone happy等。《新概念英語》第三冊第23課的標題是:One man‘s meat is another man‘s poison,表達的很生動。總之,應采取意譯。

03.他一向嘴硬,從不認錯。[誤] He has always got a hard mouth and never admit a fault. [正] He never says uncle.

注:say (cry) uncle: to give up or in; to surrender; to admit defeat. Mainly used by boys, as when fighting。主要是男孩們打架時的用語,當一方想制服另一方時,就用命令的口氣說:“Say uncle!”這時,有的孩子為了表示不服輸,就是不說。后來,say uncle就成了“服輸”的代名詞,而not say uncle就相當于“嘴硬”了。

04.老師很喜歡這個嘴甜的小姑娘。

[誤] The teacher likes this sweet-mouthed little girl very much.

[正] The teacher likes this honey-lipped little girl very much.

注:中國人喜歡說“嘴甜”,但honey-lipped更符合英美人的語言習慣。

05.同學們都很討厭他,因為他經常拍老師的馬屁。

[誤] The student all dislike him because he often pats the teacher‘s ass.

[正] The students all dislike him because he often licks the teacher‘s boots.

注:以前在歐洲,臣民見到國王與王后往往要葡匐到在,親吻他們的靴子。后來,人們將lick the boots引申為“為了某種目的而討好某人”,它與漢語的“拍馬屁”含義一樣。在美國英語中,“拍馬屁”還有另一種說法,即polish the apple,它典出以前的學生用擦亮的蘋果來討好老師。

06.你聽說了嗎?邁克把他的女朋友給甩了。

[誤] Have you ever heard that Mike broke up with his girlfriend.

[正] Have you ever heard that Mike dumped his girlfriend.

注:break up with sb.雖然表示“與某人分手了”,但并沒說明是誰先提出來的。而dump的原意指“傾倒垃圾”,用在這里則表示像倒垃圾一樣地甩掉。

07.我們要把祖國建設成為社會主義的現代化強國。

[誤] We will build our motherland into a socialist modern powerful country.

[正] We will build our motherland into a modern powerful socialist country.

注:形容詞作為修飾語在漢語和英語中都很常用,但使用的先后次序卻有所不同。在英語中我們一般遵循“靠近原則”,即越能說明本質屬性的修飾詞越靠近它所修飾的名詞,當從這一點看不出區別時,就靠詞的長短來決定,短的在前,長的在后。原文中最能說明“國家”本質的定語是“社會主義的”,所以socialist要最靠近它所修飾的中心詞。

08.我想要一點白酒。[誤] I‘d like a little bit of white wine. [正] I‘d like a little bit of liquor.

注:漢語的“酒”可指任何酒,包括白酒、葡萄酒、啤酒,甚至米酒;但英語中則要分別用liquor,wine,beer及rice wine表示。所以要注意,英語的wine與漢語的“酒”是有區別的,它僅指點葡萄酒。而且red wine是紅葡萄酒,white wine是白葡萄酒。

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09.中華人民共和國主席

[誤] Chairman of the People‘s Republic of China [正] President of the People‘s Republic of China

注:以前,我們一直將“主席”翻譯為chairman,例如:great leader Chairman Mao(偉大領袖毛主席)。其實“主席”與chairman并不等義,chairman在英語中通常指會議或某一具體組織的負責人,它的權力和重要性不及中文的“主席”。這就是為什么1983年,在我國《憲法》的英譯單行本中開始使用President一詞,并沿用至今。另外,國內仍有不少詞典把“班/級長(學校的)”譯為“class monitor”,這是“四人幫”時代的產物,那時的“班長”是專司監管學生的,所以譯作“monitor”。而“班長”的正確譯文應該是“class president”。

10.轉戰南北[誤] fight south and north [正] fight north and south

注:在地理方位的表達習慣上,中英文有一定的區別。中國人習慣于先“東西”后“南北”,而且在涉及“南北”時,習慣于先說“南”,再說“北”,如:“南征北戰”、“南來北往”等。而英美人與此正好相反,如“江蘇在中國的東南部”英文是Jiangsu is in the south-east of China,而“新疆在中國的西北部”應譯為Xinjiang is in the north-west of China。

11.人都是這山望著那山高,對自己的現狀沒有滿意的時候。

[誤] Almost all people think that the other mountain is higher than the one he‘s standing on. They never feel saisfied with what they‘ve already got.

[正] Almost all people think that the grass is greener on the other hill. They never feel saisfied with what they‘ve already got.

注:“這山望著那山高”是指人不滿足于現狀的心理,它在英語中已經有了現成的說法,即the grass is greener on the other hill(他山的草更綠),因此我們借用即可,這樣既方便又更有利于與西方人溝通。

12.北京申奧成功的消息令我們熱血沸騰。

[誤] Beijing‘s winning the bid for the Olympics makes our blood boil.

[正] Beijing‘s winning the bid for the Olympics makes us excited.

注:make one‘s blood boil是指“激怒某人”,而非“使人激動”。英語中“使人激動”的說法除了make one excited,還有較為口語化的make one‘s spine tingle。

13.別聽他們胡說八道,根本就沒那回事。

[誤] Don‘t listen to their babbling. Nothing of the sort.

[正] Don‘t be fooled by their babbling. Nothing of the sort.

注:原文中的“聽”不能用listen to來表示,因為listen to指“聽”的動作,而原文中的“別聽”不是不讓他“聽”,而是勸告他“不要聽信”,因此,用not be fooled by才更達意。

14.我們這兒的人都覺得他有婚外戀。

[誤] People around here all feel that he has affairs outside his own marriage.

[正] People around here all feel that he is leading a double life.

注:affair本身就指“私通”或“曖昧關系”,當然是“婚外”的事,所以outside one‘s own marriage無疑是多此一舉了。英語中“有婚外戀”的地道說法應該是lead a double life。

15.別看別人不把她當回事,在家里她可是父親的掌上明珠。

[誤] Although other people never take her seriously, she is the pearl on her father‘s hand at home.

[正] Although other people never take her seriously, she is the apple of her father‘s eye at home.

注:中英文常用不同的喻體表明相同的喻義,“掌上明珠”與the apple of one‘s eye就是一個很好的例子。這種情況我們一般應尊重各國文化和習俗,翻譯時取目的語的固定說法,而不必直譯,這有助于將意思更有效地傳達給讀者。the apple of one‘s eye源自圣經《舊約》,當時人們用apple指人的瞳孔。盡管瞳孔現在已經用pupil來表示,不再是apple了,但這一用法卻延續了下來。

16.都十點鐘了。起床了,懶蟲!

[誤] It‘s ten o‘clock. Get up, lazy worm! [正] It‘s ten o‘clock. Get up, lazy bones!

注:“懶蟲”并非真是一條蟲,只不過被用來形容人很懶惰罷了。英語里與之對應的說法是lazy bones(懶骨頭)。注意,這里的bone應以復數形式出現,也許是因為不會只有一根骨頭懶吧!

17.我唯一的資本就是勤奮。[誤] My only capital is diligence. [正] My only means to success is diligence.

注:原文的“資本”是借喻,實際指“可以依靠并取得成功的手段”。而英語的capital指money used to produce more wealth or for starting a business,并沒有中文那樣的引申意思。所以,這里的“資本”不能與capital畫等號。也有人用advantage來翻譯“資本”,雖然不盡意,但至少可以讓讀者理解。

18.這家商店開辟了休息處,受到顧客的稱贊。

[誤] This department store has set up a resting-place, much to the customers‘ appreciation.

[正] This department store has set up a lounge, much to the customers‘ appreciation.

注:英語的resting-place雖然有“休息處”的意思,但更經常的是用來指“墳墓”,即“最后安息之處”。因此,把公共場所的“休息處”譯為resting-place不很合適。也有人將它譯為rest-room,但那更不妥當,因為英語中的rest-room是“廁所”的委婉說法,而“休息處”不是這個意思。

19.大家都懷疑湯姆是個間諜。

[誤] Everyone doubts that Tom is a spy. [正] Everyone suspects that Tom is a spy.

注:doubt作“懷疑”講,是“不相信”的意思;而suspect作“懷疑”講,是指“對...有所察覺”。第一句譯文犯了兩個錯誤:首先,doubt不能接that從句,只有not doubt that和doubt if/whether;其次,它所表達的意思是“大家對湯姆是間諜這件事表示懷疑”,即“大家不相信湯姆是間諜”,與原文的意思恰好相反。

20.我們倆關系最好,他經常來我這兒蹲飯吃。

[誤] We are best friends. He always comes here to have meals for free.

[正] We are best friends. He always comes here to bum meals off me.

注:第一句只表明“他常到我這兒來白吃白喝”,但朋友這間那種親密關系沒有體現出來。而bum sth. off sb.指向非常熟的朋友要一些不起眼的小東西,而朋友也不會介意還不還。

21.這個教授教得很爛。[誤] The professor teaches badly. [正] The professor is so terrible.

注:有人認為第二句的意思是“這個教授很可怕”,其實不然。英語中terible意思很靈活,例如:feel terrible指身體“不舒服”;The food is terrible則是說食物“難吃極了”。而第一句純屬中文式的表達。

22.我希望你不要拖我的后腿。[誤] I hope that you won‘t pull my leg. [正] I hope that you won‘t hold me back.

注:pull one‘s leg是“愚弄某人,開某人的玩笑”的意思,相當于make fun of sb.。英語中與“拖后腿”相對應的表達是hold sb. back或be a drag on sb.等。

23.學校里,那些長得人高馬大的家伙常來找我的麻煩。

[誤] At school, those big and strong guys always come to find my trouble.

[正] At school, those big and strong guys always come to pick on me.

注:find my trouble是“發現我的難處”的意思,而英語中“找某人的麻煩”用短語pick on sb.它不僅表示“挑剔某人、找某人的碴”,而且還包含tease(取笑、戲弄)或bully(威脅、欺侮)的意思。

24.原來如此。一經你解釋我就明白了。

[誤] So it is. I understand soon after your explanation. [正] So that‘s how it is. I understand soon after your explanation.

注:So it is的意思是“的確如此”,它是用來表示對對方觀點的贊同的。例如:A: It is a fine day today! B: So it is.

而在表達恍然大悟時,英文要用So that‘s how it is或So that explains it,或更簡單地道的說法Oh, I see.

25.先生,您是不是迷路了?

[誤] Hello, monsieur, get lost?

[正] Hello, monsieur, got lost?

注:這兩句譯文表面上看只是時態上存在差異,其實它們的含義也截然不同。get lost是俚語:“走開,別搗亂”的意思,got lost才是“迷路”。難怪當你友好地問外賓"Get lost?"時,他并不領情呢!

Please see: http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp...64&star=1#65796

(1) get lost!: go away

"I wish he‘d get lost and stop bothering me. I don‘t want to talk to him!" ---Dennis Oliver‘s Idioms:

http://www.eslcafe.com/idioms/id-g.html

(2) Get lost! INFORMAL

used to tell someone forcefully and quite rudely to go away: Tell him to get lost!

(from Cambridge Advanced Learner‘s Dictionary)

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/def...=CALD&key=47316

(3)《英漢大詞典》p.1055:We got lost in the woods.我們在森林中迷路了。

(4)張道真《現代英語用法詞典》p.820-821:He lost his bearing(迷失方向)in the strange city.

(5)在...中迷路,迷失在...We were lost in the forest. We are lost in the woods.

* lost one‘e way迷路She had lost her way. Don‘t lost your way in the storm.

(6)《漢英大詞典》上海交大版;金山詞霸2005:

均收錄了get lost為“迷路”;而“金山詞霸2005”把“get lost”和“got lost”均列為“迷路”。但都沒有例句。

有關迷路的常見說法:

1) to get lost(常用)I wouldn‘t have gotten lost, if I had asked for directions.要是我問過路,就不至于迷路了。

2) to lost one‘s way(正式)The child had lost his way.那個小孩迷路了。

3) to take the wrong road(不常用)Finally we found ourselves having taken the wrong road.

最后,我們發覺我們迷路了。

4) to go the wrong way(常用)I am we are going the wrong way.恐怕我們走錯路了。

5) so lose one‘s bearings(正式)

One might lose his bearings in an unfamiliar place.一個人在不熟悉的地方最容易迷路。

6) can‘t find one‘s way(常用)

They went on in the desert until at last they couldn‘t find their way.他們在沙漠里繼續走,直到他們最后迷了路。

7) to stray(正式)They strayed in the woods.他們在森林中迷路了。

(to go astray:走入迷途,走上歧途)

Today I came across get lost in The Invisible Man ---H. G. Wells:

"I‘m not trying to run away, I swear," protested Marvel tearfully. "I don‘t know these roads and I don‘t want to get lost."

26.我沒料到這個無恥的女人居然同她好友的丈夫調情。

[誤] I had not expected that this shameful woman should flirt with her best friend‘s husband.

[正] I had not expected that this shameless woman should flirt with her best friend‘s husband.

注:shameful通常指某事物是“可恥的,丟臉的”,而shameless表示having or showing no feeling of shame; immodest or impudent,它一般用來指人“不知羞恥的,不要臉的”或“傷風敗俗的”。原文也可譯為:It‘s shameful that the woman should flirt with her best friend‘s husband.

27.東施效顰。

[誤] Doingshi imitates Xishi.

[正] The ugly imitates the beautiful in such a distorted way that the ugliness of the ugly becomes worse.

注:把原文按照字面意思直譯過來,恐怕只有中國人能夠理解。要想讓外國人明白這個中國成語,就要對譯文進行解釋性加工了。同樣,“情人眼里出西施”不是Xishi is in the eye of the beholder,而是Beauty is in the eye of the beholder。

28.你不好好學習,還想去牛津上大學。這可真是個不切實際的幻想喲!

[誤] You don‘t study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an impractical illusion!

[正] You don‘t study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an illusion!

注:漢語中的修飾語往往用的很多,目的在于加強語氣,但這種表達習慣在翻譯時必須進行處理。illusion本身就有impractical的含義,而英語中在表意已經很明確的情況下是無需重復的。

29.想讓他答應這樣的要求恐怕不大可能。

[誤] I‘m it is impossible for him to agree to such a request.

[正] I‘m afreaid it is unlikely for him to agree to such a request.

注:impossible表示“完全不可能”,所以與原文有出入。在英語中,probable表示的可能性最大,其次是possible,再次是likely。而常用的句式為it is probable/possible/likely for sb. to do sth.,或sb. be likely to do sth.。

30.一群螞蟻[誤] a group of ants [正] a colony of ants

注:表示群體時,group通常指人或物,而colony才指生物群體。

The Chinglish Files have been featured in the U.K. newspaper "The Telegraph" and on the BBC radio program "The World Today."

Chinglish: The humorous version of English that appears (often in instructions for assembling or using products) after a translation from the original Chinese (or any other language) fails to come across in "normal" English.

The term Chinglish is a fusion of the "Chin" from Chinese and the "glish" from English. Chinglish is not a racist or bigoted term and should not be taken as such. If anything, The Chinglish Files are a way of poking fun at how difficult our flawed English language can be to translate at times. It is not intended as a dig at the intelligence or linguistic capabilities of other nations. Anyway, that‘s enough "serious" discussion already... time for some fun:

(a * indicates the more popular featured pieces of Chinglish - The newest pieces of Chinglish are at the bottom of the page)

31.最近的人口統計顯示中國人口已超過12億。

[誤] The latest census shows that China‘s population has surpassed 1.2 billion.

[正] The latest census shows that China‘s population exceeds 1.2 billion.

注:surpass和exceed譯成中文雖然都是“超過,勝過”的意思,但出現具體數字時要用后者。

32.我每天都要在網吧里呆上10個小時,是個不折不扣的網蟲。

[誤] I spend 10 hours in the net bar every day, and I am indeed a net bug.

[正] I spend 10 hours in the net bar every day, and I am indeed a netter.

注:“網蟲”要是直譯成net bug,很容易使人聯想到計算機病毒,如:the millennium bug(“千年蟲”病毒)。所以,英語中與之相應的說法是netter/nettle。在《劍橋國際英語詞典》里,對netter/nettle的解釋是:regular user of Internet, perhaps one who spends too much time in this occupation。nethead和“網蟲”的意思差不多,它表示“網癡,網迷”;而netizen則可以用來指所有的網民,尤其是互聯網的用戶,它是由net(網絡)和citizen(公民)組合而成的。還有一個時髦的詞是netsurfer,即“網上沖浪者”。

33.每次考試來臨的時候,約翰就變成了一只夜貓子,但這并不是一個好的學習方法。

[誤] John becomes a night cat every time the examination is coming. However, this is not a good way to learn.

[正] John becomes a night owl every time the examination is coming. However, this is not a good way to learn.

注:owl是“貓頭鷹”的意思,即一種深夜不睡,睜一只眼,閉一只眼,準備隨時捕捉田鼠的動物。英語中用night owl來比喻經常熬夜的人,就像我們習慣用“夜貓子”一樣。不論叫你“夜貓子”還是a night owl,“開夜車”(burn the midnight oil)總是免不了的。

34.現如今,由于出國深造的人越來越多,“海龜(歸)派”也不像原來那樣吃香了。

[誤] Nowadays as more and more people study abroad, the overseas students are not so popular as before.

[正] Nowadays as more and more people study abroad, the returnees are not so popular as before.

注:“海龜(歸)派”是指那些在國外留學以后又回來的人,是個非常形象的新名詞。但overseas student是指正在國外學習的“留學生”,意思正好相反,所以要換成returnee。這個詞本身就包含在海外學習過的意思。

35.在皎潔的月光下,那個花花公子在我耳邊悄悄說著情話。

[誤] The playboy whispered love words to my ear with a bright moon in the sky.

[正] The playboy whispered sweet nothings to my ear with a bright moon in the sky.

注:因為“情書”是love letter,“情歌”是love song,所以不少人以為“情話”就應該是love words,其實并非如此。英語中“情話”常用lovers’ prattle或sweet nothings來表達。prattle有“孩子話,廢話”的意思,所以lovers‘ prattle指“戀人之間孩子氣的廢話”;sweet nothings更是一目了然,有“甜蜜而不中用”的意思。

36.比爾.蓋茨平均每天工作15個小時,他簡直就是一個工作狂。

[誤] Bill Gates works 15 hours a day on average, and he is crazy about his work.

[正] Bill Gates works 15 hours a day on average, and he is a workaholic.

注:crazy雖然可以作“瘋狂的,狂熱的”講,但be crazy about/on sth.的意思卻是“熱衷于...,對...著迷”;be crazy for也不行,因為它表示“渴望(某物);迷戀(某人)”。可見,它們都與“工作狂”有一定區別。而workaholic是從alcoholic(嗜酒成癖者)派生出來的,表示像酗酒者離不開酒精一樣地離不開工作。現在人們將-holic作為一個后綴,表示“對...上癮,嗜好...成癖”,并構成了許多新詞。例如:movie-holic(嗜好電影成癖的人),telehokic(看電視成癖的人)等。

37.給這們女士來杯威士忌,記在我的賬上。

[誤] Whisky for this lady, and put it on my bill. [正] Whisky for this lady, and put it on my tab.

注:我們可以說Could we have the bill, please?(請給我們賬單好嗎?)或pay the bill(埋單),但“記在某某的賬上”卻不用bill,而要用put...on one‘s tab表示。tab是“小紙片”的意思,因為過去小店的生意都是靠住在附近的老主顧,賒賬時有發生,于是老板們通常把每個人的賒賬情況記在各自的小紙片上,也就是put...on one‘s tab,以防遺忘。漸漸地,該詞組就成了一種習慣用法。

38.哈羅得揮金如土,沒有一點積蓄。

[誤] Harold spends money like dirt, and has no savings.

[正] Harold spends money like water, and has no savings.

注:英國是一個島國,離不開水;而我們中國的許多地區深處內陸,人們的生活離不開土地。所以,英語中有許多習語與“水”有關,而漢語卻常常拿“土”作比。這就是為什么同樣是比喻花錢浪費,大手大腳,英語是spend money like water,而漢語卻是“揮金如土”。此外,英語中還有很多有關船和水的習語,例如:rest on one‘s oars(暫時歇一歇),keep one‘s head above water(奮力圖存),be all at sea(不知所措)等等。

39.這只表的價錢很貴。

[誤] The price of the watch is dear.

[正] The watch is dear. /The price of the watch is high.

注:以物品為主語時用dear或cheap,以定價為主語時就說high或low.

40.昨天晚上我們玩得很愉快。

[誤] We played very pleasantly last night.

[正] We enjoyed ourselves very much last night./ We had a good time last night.

注:玩牌,打球,演戲之類就用play,漢語這兒說的玩是指度過一個愉快的時候,最好譯成enjoy oneself或have a good time

41.她和男朋友吵了一架,冒著大雨跑了出去。

[誤] She quarreled with her boyfriend and ran out in the big rain.

[正] She quarreled with her boyfriend and ran out in the heavy rain.

注:漢語中的“大”可以修飾很多名詞,如“大風”、“大浪”、“濕氣大”等,但在英語里卻不能一一對應。例如,“大雨”就不能譯成big rain,因為那會被人誤以為是雨點大,而不是雨大。英美人形容雨大習慣用“重”(heavy),heavy rain(大雨),heavy clouds(云霧大),heavy moisture(潮氣大)等,這也許是因為他們認為有些事物用重量來衡量比用體積更好吧。

42.歌迷們沖進演員休息室,搶著同凱莉.米納合影。

[誤] The fans rushed into the rest room trying to take photos with Kylie Minogue.

[正] The fans rushed into the greenroom trying to take photos with Kylie Minogue.

注:倫敦西區的特魯街劇院是英國最古老的劇院,據說為了讓演員們長時間處于舞臺強烈燈光照射下的眼睛得到休息,那里的演員休息室被漆成了綠色。后來,greenroom就逐漸成了“(劇場)演員休息室”的代名詞。而rest room可不是這個意義上的“休息室”,它其實是“廁所”的一種委婉說法。

43.我感到很痛。

[誤] I am painful.

[正] I feel great pain.

注:“我感到高興”是I am happy,“我感到累了”是I‘m tired,但“我感到很痛”卻不是I am painful。因為painful表示“使人痛苦的,讓人疼痛或討厭的”,它的主語往往不是人,而是事物或人體的某個部位,如:The foot is painful(腳痛),The lessons are painful(教訓是慘痛的)等。所以沒有I am painful這個說法,如果你非要這樣說,別人會以為你全身帶電或渾身長刺,別人碰了你就會疼,是你讓別人痛苦,而不是你自己痛苦。

44.亞洲四小龍。[誤] the Four Little Dragons of Asia [正] the Four Little Tigers of Asia

注:在我國古代傳說中,龍是降雨和懲治妖魔鬼怪的神奇動物,是吉祥和力挽狂瀾的象征。很多漢語成語與“龍”有關,如“龍飛鳳舞”、“龍鳳呈祥”、“藏龍臥虎”等,而且多為褒義詞。但如果把“四小龍”直譯成英文卻不行,因為西方人對“龍”的聯想和看法與中國人完全不同。“龍”(dragon)在西方是貶義詞,是邪惡的免征,西方人不會理解為什么要把亞洲經濟的四個強國說成“四個小魔鬼”,所以要用tiger進行替換。在西方人眼里,tiger “是朝氣蓬勃、堅忍不拔、努力奮斗、充滿希望”的象征,所以用tiger才能準確表達原文的意思。

45.百里挑一。

[誤] one in a hundred [正] one in a thousand

注:“百里挑一”常被用來形容“很特別,很出眾”或“與眾不同”,one in a thousand也有相同的含義。但值得注意的是,漢語用“百”,而英語則以十倍于百的thousand來夸張。同樣,漢語的“十分感謝”或“萬分感謝”,英語則說a thousand thanks(千分感謝)或thanks a million times(百萬次的感謝)。

46.周末許多人睡得很晚。

[誤] Many people sleep late at weekends. [正] Many people go to bed very late at weekends.

注:第一句譯文錯在沒弄懂sleep的真正含義。英語動詞有短暫動詞和持續動詞之分,它們分別表示短暫動作和持續的動作或狀態。sleep是典型的持續動詞,表示“在睡覺”。而漢語的“睡”既可表示“上床睡覺”的短暫動作,如:我昨天11點才睡;也可以表示“在睡覺”的持續動作和狀態,如:他睡了整整10個小時。原文屬于前一種情況,即表示“上床睡覺”的短暫動作,故應該使用go to bed。

47.干杯!要一飲而盡。

[誤] ---Cheers! Bottom up.

[正] ---Cheers! Bottoms up.

注:bottoms up雖然只比bottom up多一個s,但是兩個詞組的意思卻相差十萬八千里。bottoms up里的bottom是指“(酒杯的)底部”,那么杯朝天就是“一飲而盡”的意思,而且因為干杯時肯定不止一人一飲而盡,所以要用復數;而bottom up表示“屁股朝天”。

48.這個任務很危險,但總得有人去冒險。

[誤] The task is really dangerous. But someone has to take the adventure.

[正] The task is really dangerous. But someone has to bell the cat.

注:adventure指軍事歷險、探險旅行等驚險活動或投機活動。而bell the cat源自一個故事:一窩老鼠想在貓脖子上套一個鈴鐺,這樣貓一來他們就會聽到,并及時逃命。但主意雖好,卻苦于沒人去套這個鈴鐺(bell the cat)。后來,bell the cat被人們反復引用,表示“為大家的事去承擔風險”,并成了表示原文意思最貼切的英語習語。

49.一輛白色轎車前來接新郎新娘去教堂。

[誤] A white car turned up to take the groom and the bride to the church.

[正] A white car turned up to take the bride and the groom to the church.

注:漢英兩種語言均有各自固定的詞序,因此,在翻譯時要根據各自的語言習慣進行適當的調整,此處就是一個很好的例子。之所以將新娘放在前面,也許是西方文化中“女士優先”的又一體現吧!又如:“衣食住行”譯成英語是food, clothing, shelter and transportation;同樣,“左顧右盼”翻譯成look right and left。

50.你去弄些水來。

[誤] Go and bring some water.

[正] Go and fetch some water.

注:bring雖然表示“帶來”,但它是讓某人在來的時候將某物帶來(但說話時人還沒來);而fetch則是讓身邊的某人“去取某物”,它包括往返的兩段路程。

英語表示倍數增減或倍數對比的句型多種多樣,其中有一些(如下文中的句型②、⑤、⑥、⑧、(12)等,見圈碼)很容易譯錯——其主要原因在于:英漢兩語在表述或對比倍數方面存在著語言與思維差異。現將常用的英語倍數句型及其正確譯法歸納如下:

倍數增加

(一) A is n times as great(long,much,…)as B.(①)

A is n times greater(longer,more,…)than B.(②)

A is n times the size(length,amount,…)of B.(③)

以上三句都應譯為;A的大小(長度,數量,……)是B的n倍[或A比B大(長,多,……)n-1倍].

Eg. This book is three times as long as(three times longer than,three

times the length of)that one.

這本書的篇幅是那本書的3倍(即長兩倍)。

注:當相比的對象B很明顯時,than(as,of)B常被省去。

(二)increase to n times(④)

increase n times/n-fold(⑤)

increase by n times(⑥)

increase by a factor of n(⑦)

以上四式均應譯為:增加到n倍(或:增加n-1倍)。

Eg. The production of integrated circuits has been increased to three times

as compared with last year.

集成電路的產量比去年增加了兩倍。

Eg. The output of chemical fertilizer has been raised five times as against

l986.

化肥產量比1986年增加了4倍。

Eg. That can increase metabolic rates by two or three times.

那可使代謝率提高到原來的2倍或3倍(即提高1倍或2倍)。

Eg. The drain voltage has been increased by a factor of four.

漏電壓增加了3借(即增加到原來的4倍)。

注:在這類句型中increase常被raise,grow,go/step up,multiply等詞所替代。

(三)There is a n-fold increase/growth…(⑧)

應譯為:增加n-倍(或增至n倍)。這個句型還有其它一些形式:

Eg. A record high increase in value of four times was reported.

據報道,價值破記錄地增長了3倍。

(四)double (增加1倍),treble(增加2倍),quadruple(增加3倍)。(⑨)

Eg. The efficiency of the machines has been more than trebled or quadrupled.

這些機器的效率已提高了2倍或3倍多。

(五)此外,英語中還有一種用again而不用倍數詞來比較倍數的方法,如:

A is as much(large,long,…)again as B.(= A is twice as much(large,long,…)as

B.(⑩)

應譯為:A比B多(大,長,……)1倍。

A is half as much(large,1ong,…)again as B.

【= A is one and a half times as much(large,1ong,…)as B.】(11)

應譯為:A比B多(大,長……)一半(即A是B的一倍半)。

倍數減少

(一)A is n times as small(light,slow,…)as B.(12)

A is n times smaller(lighter,slower,…) than B.(13)

以上兩句均應譯為:A的大小(重量,速度,……)是B的1/n[或A比B小(輕,慢,……)(n-1)/n]。

Eg. The hydrogen atom is near1y l6 times as light as the oxygen atom.

氫原子的重量約為氧原子的1/16(即比氧原子約輕15/16)。

Eg. This sort of membrane is twice thinner than ordinary paper.

這種薄膜比普通紙張要薄一半(即是普通紙厚度的1/2)。

注:當相比的對象B很明顯時,than/as B常被省去。

(二)decrease n times/n--fold(14)

decrease by n times(15)

decrease by a factor of n(16)

以上三式均譯為:減少到1/n[或:減少(n-1)/n]。

decrease常被reduce,shorten,go/slow down等詞替代。

Eg. Switching time of the new-type transistor is shortened 3 times.

新型晶體管的開關時間縮短了1/3(即縮短到2/3)。

Eg. When the voltage is stepped up by ten times,the strength of the current

is stepped down by ten times.

電壓升高9倍,電流強度便降低9/10(即90%)。

Eg. The equipment reduced the error probability by a factor of 5.

該設備誤差概率降低了4/5。

(三)There is a n-fold decrease/reduction…

應譯為:減至1/n [或:減少(n一1)/n]。(17)

這個句型還有其它一些形式,

Eg. A rapid decrease by a factor of 7 was observed.

發現迅速減少到1/7。

Eg. The principal advantage of the products is a two-fold reduction in

weight.

這些產品的主要優點是重量減輕了1/2。

從上列倍數增減句型及其譯法中不難看出:與漢語不同的是,英語在表述或比較倍數時,無論使用什么句型(除了不含倍數詞的again句型外)都包括基礎倍

數在內,因此都不是凈增或凈減n倍,而是凈增或凈減n-1倍。所以句型⑤、③表示的倍數增量=句型④;句型(13)表示的倍數比差=句型12,且decrease(by)

3 times應譯為“減少2/3”,而不是“減少3/4”。

01 The Language of Music

A painter hangs his or her finished pictures on a wall, and everyone can see it. A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed. Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the composer is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and as arduous a training to become a performer as a medical student needs to become a doctor. Most training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the muscular proficiency of an athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as their vocal chords would be inadequate without controlled muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right arm—two entirely different movements.

Singers and instruments have to be able to get every note perfectly in tune. Pianists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner’s responsibility to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties; the hammers that hit the string have to be coaxed not to sound like percussion, and each overlapping tone has to sound clear.

This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors: they have to learn to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these sound with fanatical but selfless authority.

Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy performing works written in any century.

02 Schooling and Education

It is commonly believed in United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.

Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished scientist. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of one’s entire life.

Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the working of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that there not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling.

03 The Definition of“Price”

Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as well as those of a myriad of services, including labor, professional, transportation, and public-utility services. The interrelationships of all these prices make up the“system”of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything else.

If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define“price”, many would reply that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words that price is the money values of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. This definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and the seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the amount and quality of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take place and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that apply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms, return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total“package”being exchanged for the asked-for amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price.

04 Electricity

The modern age is an age of electricity. People are so used to electric lights, radio, televisions, and telephones that it is hard to imagine what life would be like without them. When there is a power failure, people grope about in flickering candlelight, cars hesitate in the streets because there are no traffic lights to guide them, and food spoils in silent refrigerators.

Yet, people began to understand how electricity works only a little more than two centuries ago. Nature has apparently been experimenting in this field for million of years. Scientists are discovering more and more that the living world may hold many interesting secrets of electricity that could benefit humanity.

All living cell send out tiny pulses of electricity. As the heart beats, it sends out pulses of record; they form an electrocardiogram, which a doctor can study to determine how well the heart is working. The brain, too, sends out brain waves of electricity, which can be recorded in an electroencephalogram. The electric currents generated by most living cells are extremely small–often so small that sensitive instruments are needed to record them. But in some animals, certain muscle cells have become so specialized as electrical generators that they do not work as muscle cells at all. When large numbers of these cell are linked together, the effects can be astonishing.

The electric eel is an amazing storage battery. It can seed a jolt of as much as eight hundred volts of electricity through the water in which it live. ( An electric house current is only one hundred twenty volts.) As many as four-fifths of all the cells in the electric eel’s body are specialized for generating electricity, and the strength of the shock it can deliver corresponds roughly to length of its body.

05 The Beginning of Drama

There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The on most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world-even the seasonal changes-as unpredictable, and they sought through various means to control these unknown and feared powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama.

Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used, Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the "acting area" and the "auditorium." In addition, there were performers, and, since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. Wearing masks and costumes, they often impersonated other people, animals, or supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect-success in hunt or battle, the coming rain, the revival of the Sun-as an actor might. Eventually such dramatic representations were separated from religious activities.

Another theory traces the theater's origin from the human interest in storytelling. According to this vies tales (about the hunt, war, or other feats) are gradually elaborated, at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person. A closely related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movements and sounds.

06 Television

Television-----the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth-is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. It is an electronic revolution of sorts, made possible by the marriage of television and computer technologies.

The word "television", derived from its Greek (tele: distant) and Latin (visio: sight) roots, can literally be interpreted as sight from a distance. Very simply put, it works in this way: through a sophisticated system of electronics, television provides the capability of converting an image (focused on a special photoconductive plate within a camera) into electronic impulses, which can be sent through a wire or cable. These impulses, when fed into a receiver (television set), can then be electronically reconstituted into that same image.

Television is more than just an electronic system, however. It is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings.

The field of television can be divided into two categories determined by its means of transmission. First, there is broadcast television, which reaches the masses through broad-based airwave transmission of television signals. Second, there is nonbroadcast television, which provides for the needs of individuals or specific interest groups through controlled transmission techniques.

Traditionally, television has been a medium of the masses. We are most familiar with broadcast television because it has been with us for about thirty-seven years in a form similar to what exists today. During those years, it has been controlled, for the most part, by the broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS, who have been the major purveyors of news, information, and entertainment. These giants of broadcasting have actually shaped not only television but our perception of it as well. We have come to look upon the picture tube as a source of entertainment, placing our role in this dynamic medium as the passive viewer.

07 Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie, known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and , in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investments.

Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt strongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity, preferring instead to provide educational opportunities that would allow others to help themselves. "He who dies rich, dies disgraced," he often said.

Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name, including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthrophic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promote understanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts.

Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie's generosity. His contributions of more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today.

08 American Revolution

The American Revolution was not a sudden and violent overturning of the political and social framework, such as later occurred in France and Russia, when both were already independent nations. Significant changes were ushered in, but they were not breathtaking. What happened was accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution. During the conflict itself people went on working and praying, marrying and playing. Most of them were not seriously disturbed by the actual fighting, and many of the more isolated communities scarcely knew that a war was on.

America's War of Independence heralded the birth of three modern nations. One was Canada, which received its first large influx of English-speaking population from the thousands of loyalists who fled there from the United States. Another was Australia, which became a penal colony now that America was no longer available for prisoners and debtors. The third newcomer-the United States-based itself squarely on republican principles.

Yet even the political overturn was not so revolutionary as one might suppose. In some states, notably Connecticut and Rhode Island, the war largely ratified a colonial self-rule already existing. British officials, everywhere ousted, were replaced by a home-grown governing class, which promptly sought a local substitute for king and Parliament.

09 Suburbanization

If by "suburb" is meant an urban margin that grows more rapidly than its already developed interior, the process of suburbanization began during the emergence of the industrial city in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Before that period the city was a small highly compact cluster in which people moved about on foot and goods were conveyed by horse and cart. But the early factories built in the 1840's were located along waterways and near railheads at the edges of cities, and housing was needed for the thousands of people drawn by the prospect of employment. In time, the factories were surrounded by proliferating mill towns of apartments and row houses that abutted the older, main cities. As a defense against this encroachment and to enlarge their tax bases, the cities appropriated their industrial neighbors. In 1854, for example, the city of Philadelphia annexed most of Philadelphia County. Similar municipal maneuvers took place in Chicago and in New York. Indeed, most great cities of the United States achieved such status only by incorporating the communities along their borders.

With the acceleration of industrial growth came acute urban crowding and accompanying social stress-conditions that began to approach disastrous proportions when, in 1888, the first commercially successful electric traction line was developed. Within a few years the horse-drawn trolleys were retired and electric streetcar networks crisscrossed and connected every major urban area, fostering a wave of suburbanization that transformed the compact industrial city into a dispersed metropolis. This first phase of mass-scale suburbanization was reinforced by the simultaneous emergence of the urban Middle Class, whose desires for homeownership in neighborhoods far from the aging inner city were satisfied by the developers of single-family housing tracts.

10 Types of Speech

Standard usage includes those words and expressions understood, used, and accepted by a majority of the speakers of a language in any situation regardless of the level of formality. As such, these words and expressions are well defined and listed in standard dictionaries. Colloquialisms, on the other hand, are familiar words and idioms that are understood by almost all speakers of a language and used in informal speech or writing, but not considered appropriate for more formal situations. Almost all idiomatic expressions are colloquial language. Slang, however, refers to words and expressions understood by a large number of speakers but not accepted as good, formal usage by the majority. Colloquial expressions and even slang may be found in standard dictionaries but will be so identified. Both colloquial usage and slang are more common in speech than in writing.

Colloquial speech often passes into standard speech. Some slang also passes into standard speech, but other slang expressions enjoy momentary popularity followed by obscurity. In some cases, the majority never accepts certain slang phrases but nevertheless retains them in their collective memories. Every generation seems to require its own set of words to describe familiar objects and events. It has been pointed out by a number of linguists that three cultural conditions are necessary for the creation of a large body of slang expressions. First, the introduction and acceptance of new objects and situations in the society; second, a diverse population with a large number of subgroups; third, association among the subgroups and the majority population.

Finally, it is worth noting that the terms "standard" "colloquial" and "slang" exist only as abstract labels for scholars who study language. Only a tiny number of the speakers of any language will be aware that they are using colloquial or slang expressions. Most speakers of English will, during appropriate situations, select and use all three types of expressions.

11 Archaeology

Archaeology is a source of history, not just a bumble auxiliary discipline. Archaeological data are historical documents in their own right, not mere illustrations to written texts, Just as much as any other historian, an archaeologist studies and tries to reconstitute the process that has created the human world in which we live - and us ourselves in so far as we are each creatures of our age and social environment. Archaeological data are all changes in the material world resulting from human action or, more succinctly, the fossilized results of human behavior. The sum total of these constitutes what may be called the archaeological record. This record exhibits certain peculiarities and deficiencies the consequences of which produce a rather superficial contrast between archaeological history and the more familiar kind based upon written records.

Not all human behavior fossilizes. The words I utter and you hear as vibrations in the air are certainly human changes in the material world and may be of great historical significance. Yet they leave no sort of trace in the archaeological records unless they are captured by a dictaphone or written down by a clerk. The movement of troops on the battlefield may "change the course of history," but this is equally ephemeral from the archaeologist's standpoint. What is perhaps worse, most organic materials are perishable. Everything made of wood, hide, wool, linen, grass, hair, and similar materials will decay and vanish in dust in a few years or centuries, save under very exceptional conditions. In a relatively brief period the archaeological record is reduce to mere scraps of stone, bone, glass, metal, and earthenware. Still modern archaeology, by applying appropriate techniques and comparative methods, aided by a few lucky finds from peat-bogs, deserts, and frozen soils, is able to fill up a good deal of the gap.

12 Museums

From Boston to Los Angeles, from New York City to Chicago to Dallas, museums are either planning, building, or wrapping up wholesale expansion programs. These programs already have radically altered facades and floor plans or are expected to do so in the not-too-distant future.

In New York City alone, six major institutions have spread up and out into the air space and neighborhoods around them or are preparing to do so.

The reasons for this confluence of activity are complex, but one factor is a consideration everywhere - space. With collections expanding, with the needs and functions of museums changing, empty space has become a very precious commodity.

Probably nowhere in the country is this more true than at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, which has needed additional space for decades and which received its last significant facelift ten years ago. Because of the space crunch, the Art Museum has become increasingly cautious in considering acquisitions and donations of art, in some cases passing up opportunities to strengthen its collections.

Deaccessing - or selling off - works of art has taken on new importance because of the museum's space problems. And increasingly, curators have been forced to juggle gallery space, rotating one masterpiece into public view while another is sent to storage.

Despite the clear need for additional gallery and storage space, however," the museum has no plan, no plan to break out of its envelope in the next fifteen years," according to Philadelphia Museum of Art's president.

13 Skyscrapers and Environment

In the late 1960's, many people in North America turned their attention to environmental problems, and new steel-and-glass skyscrapers were widely criticized. Ecologists pointed out that a cluster of tall buildings in a city often overburdens public transportation and parking lot capacities.

Skyscrapers are also lavish consumers, and wasters, of electric power. In one recent year, the addition of 17 million square feet of skyscraper office space in New York City raised the peak daily demand for electricity by 120, 000 kilowatts-enough to supply the entire city of Albany, New York, for a day.

Glass-walled skyscrapers can be especially wasteful. The heat loss (or gain)through a wall of half-inch plate glass is more than ten times that through a typical masonry wall filled with insulation board. To lessen the strain on heating and air-conditioning equipment, builders of skyscrapers have begun to use double-glazed panels of glass, and reflective glasses coated with silver or gold mirror films that reduce glare as well as heat gain. However, mirror-walled skyscrapers raise the temperature of the surrounding air and affect neighboring buildings.

Skyscrapers put a severe strain on a city's sanitation facilities, too. If fully occupied, the two World Trade Center towers in New York City would alone generate 2.25 million gallons of raw sewage each year-as much as a city the size of Stanford, Connecticut , which has a population of more than 109, 000.

14 A Rare Fossil Record

The preservation of embryos and juveniles is a rate occurrence in the fossil record. The tiny, delicate skeletons are usually scattered by scavengers or destroyed by weathering before they can be fossilized. Ichthyosaurs had a higher chance of being preserved than did terrestrial creatures because, as marine animals, they tended to live in environments less subject to erosion. Still, their fossilization required a suite of factors: a slow rate of decay of soft tissues, little scavenging by other animals, a lack of swift currents and waves to jumble and carry away small bones, and fairly rapid burial. Given these factors, some areas have become a treasury of well-preserved ichthyosaur fossils.

The deposits at Holzmaden, Germany, present an interesting case for analysis. The ichthyosaur remains are found in black, bituminous marine shales deposited about 190 million years ago. Over the years, thousands of specimens of marine reptiles, fish and invertebrates have been recovered from these rocks. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos. Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported from 6 different levels of the shale in a small area around Holzmaden, suggesting that a specific site was used by large numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time. The embryos are quite advanced in their physical development; their paddles, for example, are already well formed. One specimen is even preserved in the birth canal. In addition, the shale contains the remains of many newborns that are between 20 and 30 inches long.

Why are there so many pregnant females and young at Holzmaden when they are so rare elsewhere? The quality of preservation is almost unmatched and quarry operations have been carried out carefully with an awareness of the value of the fossils. But these factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth.

15 The Nobel Academy

For the last 82years, Sweden's Nobel Academy has decided who will receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, thereby determining who will be elevated from the great and the near great to the immortal. But today the Academy is coming under heavy criticism both from the without and from within. Critics contend that the selection of the winners often has less to do with true writing ability than with the peculiar internal politics of the Academy and of Sweden itself. According to Ingmar Bjorksten , the cultural editor for one of the country's two major newspapers, the prize continues to represent "what people call a very Swedish exercise: reflecting Swedish tastes."

The Academy has defended itself against such charges of provincialism in its selection by asserting that its physical distance from the great literary capitals of the world actually serves to protect the Academy from outside influences. This may well be true, but critics respond that this very distance may also be responsible for the Academy's inability to perceive accurately authentic trends in the literary world.

Regardless of concerns over the selection process, however, it seems that the prize will continue to survive both as an indicator of the literature that we most highly praise, and as an elusive goal that writers seek. If for no other reason, the prize will continue to be desirable for the financial rewards that accompany it; not only is the cash prize itself considerable, but it also dramatically increases sales of an author's books.

16. the war between Britain and France

In the late eighteenth century, battles raged in almost every corner of Europe, as well as in the Middle East, south Africa ,the West Indies, and Latin America. In reality, however, there was only one major war during this time, the war between Britain and France. All other battles were ancillary to this larger conflict, and were often at least partially related to its antagonist’goals and strategies. France sought total domination of Europe . this goal was obstructed by British independence and Britain’s efforts throughout the continent to thwart Napoleon; through treaties. Britain built coalitions (not dissimilar in concept to today’s NATO) guaranteeing British participation in all major European conflicts. These two antagonists were poorly matched, insofar as they had very unequal strengths; France was predominant on land, Britain at sea. The French knew that, short of defeating the British navy, their only hope of victory was to close all the ports of Europe to British ships. Accordingly, France set out to overcome Britain by extending its military domination from Moscow t Lisbon, from Jutland to Calabria. All of this entailed tremendous risk, because France did not have the military resources to control this much territory and still protect itself and maintain order at home.

French strategists calculated that a navy of 150 ships would provide the force necessary to defeat the British navy. Such a force would give France a three-to-two advantage over Britain. This advantage was deemed necessary because of Britain’s superior sea skills and technology because of Britain’s superior sea skills and technology, and also because Britain would be fighting a defensive war, allowing it to win with fewer forces. Napoleon never lost substantial impediment to his control of Europe. As his force neared that goal, Napoleon grew increasingly impatient and began planning an immediate attack.

17.Evolution of sleep

Sleep is very ancient. In the electroencephalographic sense we share it with all the primates and almost all the other mammals and birds: it may extend back as far as the reptiles.

There is some evidence that the two types of sleep, dreaming and dreamless, depend on the life-style of the animal, and that predators are statistically much more likely to dream than prey, which are in turn much more likely to experience dreamless sleep. In dream sleep, the animal is powerfully immobilized and remarkably unresponsive to external stimuli. Dreamless sleep is much shallower, and we have all witnessed cats or dogs cocking their ears to a sound when apparently fast asleep. The fact that deep dream sleep is rare among pray today seems clearly to be a product of natural selection, and it makes sense that today, when sleep is highly evolved, the stupid animals are less frequently immobilized by deep sleep than the smart ones. But why should they sleep deeply at all? Why should a state of such deep immobilization ever have evolved?

Perhaps one useful hint about the original function of sleep is to be found in the fact that dolphins and whales and aquatic mammals in genera seem to sleep very little. There is, by and large, no place to hide in the ocean. Could it be that, rather than increasing an animal’s vulnerability, the University of Florida and Ray Meddis of London University have suggested this to be the case. It is conceivable that animals who are too stupid to be quite on their own initiative are, during periods of high risk, immobilized by the implacable arm of sleep. The point seems particularly clear for the young of predatory animals. This is an interesting notion and probably at least partly true.

18. Modern American Universities

Before the 1850’s, the United States had a number of small colleges, most of them dating from colonial days. They were small, church connected institutions whose primary concern was to shape the moral character of their students.

Throughout Europe, institutions of higher learning had developed, bearing the ancient name of university. In German university was concerned primarily with creating and spreading knowledge, not morals. Between mid-century and the end of the 1800’s, more than nine thousand young Americans, dissatisfied with their training at home, went to Germany for advanced study. Some of them return to become presidents of venerable colleges-----Harvard, Yale, Columbia---and transform them into modern universities. The new presidents broke all ties with the churches and brought in a new kind of faculty. Professors were hired for their knowledge of a subject, not because they were of the proper faith and had a strong arm for disciplining students. The new principle was that a university was to create knowledge as well as pass it on, and this called for a faculty composed of teacher-scholars. Drilling and learning by rote were replaced by the German method of lecturing, in which the professor’s own research was presented in class. Graduate training leading to the Ph.D., an ancient German degree signifying the highest level of advanced scholarly attainment, was introduced. With the establishment of the seminar system, graduate student learned to question, analyze, and conduct their own research.

At the same time, the new university greatly expanded in size and course offerings, breaking completely out of the old, constricted curriculum of mathematics, classics, rhetoric, and music. The president of Harvard pioneered the elective system, by which students were able to choose their own course of study. The notion of major fields of study emerged. The new goal was to make the university relevant to the real pursuits of the world. Paying close heed to the practical needs of society, the new universities trained men and women to work at its tasks, with engineering students being the most characteristic of the new regime. Students were also trained as economists, architects, agriculturalists, social welfare workers, and teachers.

19. Children’s numerical skills

people appear to born to compute. The numerical skills of children develop so early and so inexorably that it is easy to imagine an internal clock of mathematical maturity guiding their growth. Not long after learning to walk and talk, they can set the table with impress accuracy---one knife, one spoon, one fork, for each of the five chairs. Soon they are capable of nothing that they have placed five knives, spoons and forks on the table and, a bit later, that this amounts to fifteen pieces of silverware. Having thus mastered addition, they move on to subtraction. It seems almost reasonable to expect that if a child were secluded on a desert island at birth and retrieved seven years later, he or she could enter a second enter a second-grade mathematics class without any serious problems of intellectual adjustment.

Of course, the truth is not so simple. This century, the work of cognitive psychologists has illuminated the subtle forms of daily learning on which intellectual progress depends. Children were observed as they slowly grasped-----or, as the case might be, bumped into-----concepts that adults take for quantity is unchanged as water pours from a short glass into a tall thin one. Psychologists have since demonstrated that young children, asked to count the pencils in a pile, readily report the number of blue or red pencils, but must be coaxed into finding the total. Such studies have suggested that the rudiments of mathematics are mastered gradually, and with effort. They have also suggested that the very concept of abstract numbers------the idea of a oneness,

a twoness, a threeness that applies to any class of objects and is a prerequisite for doing anything more mathematically demanding than setting a table-----is itself far from innate

20 The Historical Significance of American Revolution

The ways of history are so intricate and the motivations of human actions so complex that it is always hazardous to attempt to represent events covering a number of years, a multiplicity of persons, and distant localities as the expression of one intellectual or social movement; yet the historical process which culminated in the ascent of Thomas Jefferson to the presidency can be regarded as the outstanding example not only of the birth of a new way of life but of nationalism as a new way of life. The American Revolution represents the link between the seventeenth century, in which modern England became conscious of itself, and the awakening of modern Europe at the end of the eighteenth century. It may seem strange that the march of history should have had to cross the Atlantic Ocean, but only in the North American colonies could a struggle for civic liberty lead also to the foundation of a new nation. Here, in the popular rising against a“tyrannical”government, the fruits were more than the securing of a freer constitution. They included the growth of a nation born in liberty by the will of the people, not from the roots of common descent, a geographic entity, or the ambitions of king or dynasty. With the American nation, for the first time, a nation was born, not in the dim past of history but before the eyes of the whole world.

21 The Origin of Sports

When did sport begin? If sport is, in essence, play, the claim might be made that sport is much older than humankind, for , as we all have observed, the beasts play. Dogs and cats wrestle and play ball games. Fishes and birds dance. The apes have simple, pleasurable games. Frolicking infants, school children playing tag, and adult arm wrestlers are demonstrating strong, transgenerational and transspecies bonds with the universe of animals–past, present, and future. Young animals, particularly, tumble, chase, run wrestle, mock, imitate, and laugh (or so it seems) to the point of delighted exhaustion. Their play, and ours, appears to serve no other purpose than to give pleasure to the players, and apparently, to remove us temporarily from the anguish of life in earnest.

Some philosophers have claimed that our playfulness is the most noble part of our basic nature. In their generous conceptions, play harmlessly and experimentally permits us to put our creative forces, fantasy, and imagination into action. Play is release from the tedious battles against scarcity and decline which are the incessant, and inevitable, tragedies of life. This is a grand conception that excites and provokes. The holders of this view claim that the origins of our highest accomplishments ---- liturgy, literature, and law ---- can be traced to a play impulse which, paradoxically, we see most purely enjoyed by young beasts and children. Our sports, in this rather happy, nonfatalistic view of human nature, are more splendid creations of the nondatable, transspecies play impulse.

22. Collectibles

Collectibles have been a part of almost every culture since ancient times. Whereas some objects have been collected for their usefulness, others have been selected for their aesthetic beauty alone. In the United States, the kinds of collectibles currently popular range from traditional objects such as stamps, coins, rare books, and art to more recent items of interest like dolls, bottles, baseball cards, and comic books.

Interest in collectibles has increased enormously during the past decade, in part because some collectibles have demonstrated their value as investments. Especially during cycles of high inflation, investors try to purchase tangibles that will at least retain their current market values. In general, the most traditional collectibles will be sought because they have preserved their value over the years, there is an organized auction market for them, and they are most easily sold in the event that cash is needed. Some examples of the most stable collectibles are old masters, Chinese ceramics, stamps, coins, rare books, antique jewelry, silver, porcelain, art by well-known artists, autographs, and period furniture. Other items of more recent interest include old photograph records, old magazines, post cards, baseball cards, art glass, dolls, classic cars, old bottles, and comic books. These relatively new kinds of collectibles may actually appreciate faster as short-term investments, but may not hold their value as long-term investments. Once a collectible has had its initial play, it appreciates at a fairly steady rate, supported by an increasing number of enthusiastic collectors competing for the limited supply of collectibles that become increasingly more difficult to locate.

23 Ford

Although Henry Ford’s name is closely associated with the concept of mass production, he should receive equal credit for introducing labor practices as early as 1913 that would be considered advanced even by today’s standards. Safety measures were improved, and the work day was reduced to eight hours, compared with the ten-or twelve-hour day common at the time. In order to accommodate the shorter work day, the entire factory was converted from two to three shifts.

In addition, sick leaves as well as improved medical care for those injured on the job were instituted. The Ford Motor Company was one of the first factories to develop a technical school to train specialized skilled laborers and an English language school for immigrants. Some efforts were even made to hire the handicapped and provide jobs for former convicts.

The most widely acclaimed innovation was the five-dollar-a-day minimum wage that was offered in order to recruit and retain the best mechanics and to discourage the growth of labor unions. Ford explained the new wage policy in terms of efficiency and profit sharing. He also mentioned the fact that his employees would be able to purchase the automobiles that they produced–in effect creating a market for the product. In order to qualify for the minimum wage, an employee had to establish a decent home and demonstrate good personal habits, including sobriety, thriftiness, industriousness, and dependability. Although some criticism was directed at Ford for involving himself too much in the personal lives of his employees, there can be no doubt that, at a time when immigrants were being taken advantage of in frightful ways, Henry Ford was helping many people to establish themselves in America.

24.Piano

The ancestry of the piano can be traced to the early keyboard instruments of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries --- the spinet, the dulcimer, and the virginal. In the seventeenth century the organ, the clavichord, and the harpsichord became the chief instruments of the keyboard group, a supremacy they maintained until the piano supplanted them at the end of the eighteenth century. The clavichord’s tone was metallic and never powerful; nevertheless, because of the variety of tone possible to it, many composers found the clavichord a sympathetic instrument for intimate chamber music. The harpsichord with its bright, vigorous tone was the favorite instrument for supporting the bass of the small orchestra of the period and for concert use, but the character of the tone could not be varied save by mechanical or structural devices.

The piano was perfected in the early eighteenth century by a harpsichord maker in Italy (though musicologists point out several previous instances of the instrument). This instrument was called a piano e forte (sort and loud), to indicate its dynamic versatility; its strings were struck by a recoiling hammer with a felt-padded head. The wires were much heavier in the earlier instruments. A series of mechanical improvements continuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction of pedals to sustain tone or to soften it, the perfection of a metal frame, and steel wire of the finest quality, finally produced an instrument capable of myriad tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almost orchestral fullness of sound, from a liquid, singing tone to a sharp, percussive brilliance.

NOTE:

Musical Instruments

1.The strings (弦樂)

1) plectrum: harp, lute, guitar, mandolin;

2) keyboard: clavichord, harpsichord, piano;

3) bow: violin, viola, cello, double bass.

2. The Wood(木管)—winds : piccolo, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, English horn;

3. the brass(銅管): French horn, trumpet, trombone, cornet, tuba, bugle, saxophone;

4.the percussion(打擊組): kettle drum, bass drum, snare drum, castanet, xylophone, celesta, cymbal, tambourine.

25. Movie Music

Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as“silent”, the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent. From the very beginning, music was regarded as an indispensable accompaniment; when the Lumiere films were shown at the first public film exhibition in the United States in February 1896, they were accompanied by piano improvisations on popular tunes. At first, the music played bore no special relationship to the films; an accompaniment of any kind was sufficient. Within a very short time, however, the incongruity of playing lively music to a solemn film became apparent, and film pianists began to take some care in matching their pieces to the mood of the film.

As movie theaters grew in number and importance, a violinist, and perhaps a cellist, would be added to the pianist in certain cases, and in the larger movie theaters small orchestras were formed. For a number of years the selection of music for each film program rested entirely in the hands of the conductor or leader of the orchestra, and very often the principal qualification for holding such a position was not skill or taste so much as the ownership of a large personal library of musical pieces. Since the conductor seldom saw the films until the night before they were to be shown(if indeed, the conductor was lucky enough to see them then), the musical arrangement was normally improvised in the greatest hurry.

To help meet this difficulty, film distributing companies started the practice of publishing suggestions for musical accompaniments. In 1909, for example, the Edison Company began issuing with their films such indications of mood as“pleasant”,“sad”,“lively”. The suggestions became more explicit, and so emerged the musical cue sheet containing indications of mood, the titles of suitable pieces of music, and precise directions to show where one piece led into the next.

Certain films had music especially composed for them. The most famous of these early special scores was that composed and arranged for D.W Griffith’s film Birth of a Nation, which was released in 1915.

Note:

美國通俗音樂分類:

1.Jazz;

1) traditional jazz---- a) blues,代表人物:Billy Holiday

b)ragtime(切分樂曲):代表人物:Scott Joplin

c)New Orleans jazz (= Dixieland jazz) eg: Louis Armstron

d)swing eg: Glenn Miller, Duke Ellington, etc.

e)bop (=bebop, rebop) eg: Lester Young, Charlie Parker etc.

2)modern jazz ------ a) cool jazz(=progressive jazz)高雅爵士樂。Eg: Kenny G.

b)third-stream jazz. Eg: Charles Mingus, John Lewis.

c) main stream jazz.

d)avant-garde jazz.

e) soul jazz. Eg: Sarah Vaughn, Ella Fitzgerald

f) Latin jazz.

2.gospel music福音音樂,主要源于Nero spirituals. Eg. Dolly Parker, Mahalia Jackson

3.Country and Western music. Eg. John Denver, Tammy Wynette, Kenny Rogers, etc.

4. Rock music-----------a) rock and roll eg: Elvis Prestley(US) , the Beatles(UK.)

b)folk rock Eg: Bob Dylon, Michael Jackson, Mariah Carey, Bruce Springsteen, Lionel Riche etc.

c)punk rock

d)acid rock

e)rock jazz eg: M.J. McLaughlin

f) Jurassic rock

5.Music for easy listening (i.e. light music )

26. International Business and Cross-cultural Communication

The increase in international business and in foreign investment has created a need for executives with knowledge of foreign languages and skills in cross-cultural communication. Americans, however, have not been well trained in either area and, consequently, have not enjoyed the same level of success in negotiation in an international arena as have their foreign counterparts.

Negotiating is the process of communicating back and forth for the purpose of reaching an agreement. It involves persuasion and compromise, but in order to participate in either one, the negotiators must understand the ways in which people are persuaded and how compromise is reached within the culture of the negotiation.

In many international business negotiations abroad, Americans are perceived as wealthy and impersonal. It often appears to the foreign negotiator that the American represents a large multi-million-dollar corporation that can afford to pay the price without bargaining further. The American negotiator’s role becomes that of an impersonal purveyor of information and cash.

In studies of American negotiators abroad, several traits have been identified that may serve to confirm this stereotypical perception, while undermining the negotiator’s position. Two traits in particular that cause cross-cultural misunderstanding are directness and impatience on the part of the American negotiator. Furthermore, American negotiators often insist on realizing short-term goals. Foreign negotiators, on the other hand, may value the relationship established between negotiators and may be willing to invest time in it for long-term benefits. In order to solidify the relationship, they may opt for indirect interactions without regard for the time involved in getting to know the other negotiator.

27. Scientific Theories

In science, a theory is a reasonable explanation of observed events that are related. A theory often involves an imaginary model that helps scientists picture the way an observed event could be produced. A good example of this is found in the kinetic molecular theory, in which gases are pictured as being made up of many small particles that are in constant motion.

A useful theory, in addition to explaining past observations, helps to predict events that have not as yet been observed. After a theory has been publicized, scientists design experiments to test the theory. If observations confirm the scientist’s predictions, the theory is supported. If observations do not confirm the predictions, the scientists must search further. There may be a fault in the experiment, or the theory may have to be revised or rejected.

Science involves imagination and creative thinking as well as collecting information and performing experiments. Facts by themselves are not science. As the mathematician Jules Henri Poincare said,“Science is built with facts just as a house is built with bricks, but a collection of facts cannot be called science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.”

Most scientists start an investigation by finding out what other scientists have learned about a particular problem. After known facts have been gathered, the scientist comes to the part of the investigation that requires considerable imagination. Possible solutions to the problem are formulated. These possible solutions are called hypotheses.

In a way, any hypothesis is a leap into the unknown. It extends the scientist’s thinking beyond the known facts. The scientist plans experiments, performs calculations, and makes observations to test hypotheses. Without hypothesis, further investigation lacks purpose and direction. When hypotheses are confirmed, they are incorporated into theories.

28.Changing Roles of Public Education

One of the most important social developments that helped to make possible a shift in thinking about the role of public education was the effect of the baby boom of the 1950's and 1960's on the schools. In the 1920's, but especially in the Depression conditions of the 1930's, the United States experienced a declining birth rate --- every thousand women aged fifteen to forty-four gave birth to about 118 live children in 1920, 89.2 in 1930, 75.8 in 1936, and 80 in 1940. With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression. Birth rates rose to 102 per thousand in 1946,106.2 in 1950, and 118 in 1955. Although economics was probably the most important determinant, it is not the only explanation for the baby boom. The increased value placed on the idea of the family also helps to explain this rise in birth rates. The baby boomers began streaming into the first grade by the mid 1940's and became a flood by 1950. The public school system suddenly found itself overtaxed. While the number of schoolchildren rose because of wartime and postwar conditions, these same conditions made the schools even less prepared to cope with the food. The wartime economy meant that few new schools were built between 1940 and 1945. Moreover, during the war and in the boom times that followed, large numbers of teachers left their profession for better-paying jobs elsewhere in the economy.

Therefore in the 1950’s and 1960’s, the baby boom hit an antiquated and inadequate school system. Consequently, the“custodial rhetoric”of the 1930’s and early 1940’s no longer made sense that is, keeping youths aged sixteen and older out of the labor market by keeping them in school could no longer be a high priority for an institution unable to find space and staff to teach younger children aged five to sixteen. With the baby boom, the focus of educators and of laymen interested in education inevitably turned toward the lower grades and back to basic academic skills and discipline. The system no longer had much interest in offering nontraditional, new, and extra services to older youths.

29 Telecommuting

Telecommuting-- substituting the computer for the trip to the job ----has been hailed as a solution to all kinds of problems related to office work.

For workers it promises freedom from the office, less time wasted in traffic, and help with child-care conflicts. For management, telecommuting helps keep high performers on board, minimizes tardiness and absenteeism by eliminating commutes, allows periods of solitude for high-concentration tasks, and provides scheduling flexibility. In some areas, such as Southern California and Seattle, Washington, local governments are encouraging companies to start telecommuting programs in order to reduce rush-hour congestion and improve air quality.

But these benefits do not come easily. Making a telecommuting program work requires careful planning and an understanding of the differences between telecommuting realities and popular images.

Many workers are seduced by rosy illusions of life as a telecommuter. A computer programmer from New York City moves to the tranquil Adirondack Mountains and stays in contact with her office via computer. A manager comes in to his office three days a week and works at home the other two. An accountant stays home to care for her sick child; she hooks up her telephone modern connections and does office work between calls to the doctor.

These are powerful images, but they are a limited reflection of reality. Telecommuting workers soon learn that it is almost impossible to concentrate on work and care for a young child at the same time. Before a certain age, young children cannot recognize, much less respect, the necessary boundaries between work and family. Additional child support is necessary if the parent is to get any work done.

Management too must separate the myth from the reality. Although the media has paid a great deal of attention to telecommuting in most cases it is the employee’s situation, not the availability of technology that precipitates a telecommuting arrangement.

That is partly why, despite the widespread press coverage, the number of companies with work-at-home programs or policy guidelines remains small.

30 The origin of Refrigerators

By the mid-nineteenth century, the term“icebox”had entered the American language, but ice was still only beginning to affect the diet of ordinary citizens in the United States. The ice trade grew with the growth of cities. Ice was used in hotels, taverns, and hospitals, and by some forward-looking city dealers in fresh meat, fresh fish, and butter. After the Civil War( 1861-1865),as ice was used to refrigerate freight cars, it also came into household use. Even before 1880,half of the ice sold in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and one-third of that sold in Boston and Chicago, went to families for their own use. This had become possible because a new household convenience, the icebox, a precursor of the modern refrigerator, had been invented.

Making an efficient icebox was not as easy as we might now suppose. In the early nineteenth century, the knowledge of the physics of heat, which was essential to a science of refrigeration, was rudimentary. The commonsense notion that the best icebox was one that prevented the ice from melting was of course mistaken, for it was the melting of the ice that performed the cooling. Nevertheless, early efforts to economize ice included wrapping up the ice in blankets, which kept the ice from doing its job. Not until near the end of the nineteenth century did inventors achieve the delicate balance of insulation and circulation needed for an efficient icebox.

But as early as 1803, and ingenious Maryland farmer, Thomas Moore, had been on the right track. He owned a farm about twenty miles outside the city of Washington, for which the village of Georgetown was the market center. When he used an icebox of his own design to transport his butter to market, he found that customers would pass up the rapidly melting stuff in the tubs of his competitors to pay a premium price for his butter, still fresh and hard in neat, one-pound bricks. One advantage of his icebox, Moore explained, was that farmers would no longer have to travel to market at night in order to keep their produce cool.

31 British Columbia

British Columbia is the third largest Canadian provinces, both in area and population. It is nearly 1.5 times as large as Texas, and extends 800 miles(1,280km) north from the United States border. It includes Canada’s entire west coast and the islands just off the coast.

Most of British Columbia is mountainous, with long rugged ranges running north and south. Even the coastal islands are the remains of a mountain range that existed thousands of years ago. During the last Ice Age, this range was scoured by glaciers until most of it was beneath the sea. Its peaks now show as islands scattered along the coast.

The southwestern coastal region has a humid mild marine climate. Sea winds that blow inland from the west are warmed by a current of warm water that flows through the Pacific Ocean. As a result, winter temperatures average above freezing and summers are mild. These warm western winds also carry moisture from the ocean.

Inland from the coast, the winds from the Pacific meet the mountain barriers of the coastal ranges and the Rocky Mountains. As they rise to cross the mountains, the winds are cooled, and their moisture begins to fall as rain. On some of the western slopes almost 200 inches (500cm) of rain fall each year.

More than half of British Columbia is heavily forested. On mountain slopes that receive plentiful rainfall, huge Douglas firs rise in towering columns. These forest giants often grow to be as much as 300 feet(90m) tall, with diameters up to 10 feet(3m). More lumber is produced from these trees than from any other kind of tree in North America. Hemlock, red cedar, and balsam fir are among the other trees found in British Columbia.

32 Botany

Botany, the study of plants, occupies a peculiar position in the history of human knowledge. For many thousands of years it was the one field of awareness about which humans had anything more than the vaguest of insights. It is impossible to know today just what our Stone Age ancestors knew about plants, but form what we can observe of pre-industrial societies that still exist a detailed learning of plants and their properties must be extremely ancient. This is logical. Plants are the basis of the food pyramid for all living things even for other plants. They have always been enormously important to the welfare of people not only for food, but also for clothing, weapons, tools, dyes, medicines, shelter, and a great many other purposes. Tribes living today in the jungles of the Amazon recognize literally hundreds of plants and know many properties of each. To them, botany, as such, has no name and is probably not even recognized as a special branch of“knowledge”at all.

Unfortunately, the more industrialized we become the farther away we move from direct contact with plants, and the less distinct our knowledge of botany grows. Yet everyone comes unconsciously on an amazing amount of botanical knowledge, and few people will fail to recognize a rose, an apple, or an orchid. When our Neolithic ancestors, living in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago, discovered that certain grasses could be harvested and their seeds planted for richer yields the next season the first great step in a new association of plants and humans was taken. Grains were discovered and from them flowed the marvel of agriculture: cultivated crops. From then on, humans would increasingly take their living from the controlled production of a few plants, rather than getting a little here and a little there from many varieties that grew wild- and the accumulated knowledge of tens of thousands of years of experience and intimacy with plants in the wild would begin to fade away.

33 Plankton【浮游生物. / 'plжηktэn; `plжηktэn/】

Scattered through the seas of the world are billions of tons of small plants and animals called plankton. Most of these plants and animals are too small for the human eye to see. They drift about lazily with the currents, providing a basic food for many larger animals.

Plankton has been described as the equivalent of the grasses that grow on the dry land continents, and the comparison is an appropriate one. In potential food value, however, plankton far outweighs that of the land grasses. One scientist has estimated that while grasses of the world produce about 49 billion tons of valuable carbohydrates each year, the sea’s plankton generates more than twice as much.

Despite its enormous food potential, little effect was made until recently to farm plankton as we farm grasses on land. Now marine scientists have at last begun to study this possibility, especially as the sea’s resources loom even more important as a means of feeding an expanding world population.

No one yet has seriously suggested that“plankton-burgers”may soon become popular around the world. As a possible farmed supplementary food source, however, plankton is gaining considerable interest among marine scientists.

One type of plankton that seems to have great harvest possibilities is a tiny shrimp-like creature called krill. Growing to two or three inches long, krill provides the major food for the great blue whale, the largest animal to ever inhabit the Earth. Realizing that this whale may grow to 100 feet and weigh 150 tons at maturity, it is not surprising that each one devours more than one ton of krill daily.

34 Raising Oysters

In the oysters were raised in much the same way as dirt farmers raised tomatoes- by transplanting them. First, farmers selected the oyster bed, cleared the bottom of old shells and other debris, then scattered clean shells about. Next, they”planted”fertilized oyster eggs, which within two or three weeks hatched into larvae. The larvae drifted until they attached themselves to the clean shells on the bottom. There they remained and in time grew into baby oysters called seed or spat. The spat grew larger by drawing in seawater from which they derived microscopic particles of food. Before long, farmers gathered the baby oysters, transplanted them once more into another body of water to fatten them up.

Until recently the supply of wild oysters and those crudely farmed were more than enough to satisfy people’s needs. But today the delectable seafood is no longer available in abundance. The problem has become so serious that some oyster beds have vanished entirely.

Fortunately, as far back as the early 1900’s marine biologists realized that if new measures were not taken, oysters would become extinct or at best a luxury food. So they set up well-equipped hatcheries and went to work. But they did not have the proper equipment or the skill to handle the eggs. They did not know when, what, and how to feed the larvae. And they knew little about the predators that attack and eat baby oysters by the millions. They failed, but they doggedly kept at it. Finally, in the 1940’s a significant breakthrough was made.

The marine biologists discovered that by raising the temperature of the water, they could induce oysters to spawn not only in the summer but also in the fall, winter, and spring. Later they developed a technique for feeding the larvae and rearing them to spat. Going still further, they succeeded in breeding new strains that were resistant to diseases, grew faster and larger, and flourished in water of different salinities and temperatures. In addition, the cultivated oysters tasted better!

35. Oil Refining

An important new industry, oil refining, grew after the Civil war. Crude oil, or petroleum–a dark, thick ooze from the earth–had been known for hundreds of years, but little use had ever been made of it. In the 1850’s Samuel M. Kier, a manufacturer in western Pennsylvania, began collecting the oil from local seepages and refining it into kerosene. Refining, like smelting, is a process of removing impurities from a raw material.

Kerosene was used to light lamps. It was a cheap substitute for whale oil, which was becoming harder to get. Soon there was a large demand for kerosene. People began to search for new supplies of petroleum.

The first oil well was drilled by E.L. Drake, a retired railroad conductor. In 1859 he began drilling in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The whole venture seemed so impractical and foolish that onlookers called it“Drake’s Folly”. But when he had drilled down about 70 feet(21 meters), Drake struck oil. His well began to yield 20 barrels of crude oil a day.

News of Drake’s success brought oil prospectors to the scene. By the early 1860’s these wildcatters were drilling for“black gold”all over western Pennsylvania. The boom rivaled the California gold rush of 1848 in its excitement and Wild West atmosphere. And it brought far more wealth to the prospectors than any gold rush.

Crude oil could be refined into many products. For some years kerosene continued to be the principal one. It was sold in grocery stores and door-to-door. In the 1880’s refiners learned how to make other petroleum products such as waxes and lubricating oils. Petroleum was not then used to make gasoline or heating oil.

36. Plate Tectonics and Sea-floor Spreading

The theory of plate tectonics describes the motions of the lithosphere, the comparatively rigid outer layer of the Earth that includes all the crust and part of the underlying mantle. The lithosphere(n.[地]巖石圈)is divided into a few dozen plates of various sizes and shapes, in general the plates are in motion with respect to one another. A mid-ocean ridge is a boundary between plates where new lithospheric material is injected from below. As the plates diverge from a mid-ocean ridge they slide on a more yielding layer at the base of the lithosphere.

Since the size of the Earth is essentially constant, new lithosphere can be created at the mid-ocean ridges only if an equal amount of lithospheric material is consumed elsewhere. The site of this destruction is another kind of plate boundary: a subduction zone. There one plate dives under the edge of another and is reincorporated into the mantle. Both kinds of plate boundary are associated with fault systems, earthquakes and volcanism, but the kinds of geologic activity observed at the two boundaries are quite different.

The idea of sea-floor spreading actually preceded the theory of plate tectonics. In its original version, in the early 1960’s, it described the creation and destruction of the ocean floor, but it did not specify rigid lithospheric plates. The hypothesis was substantiated soon afterward by the discovery that periodic reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field are recorded in the oceanic crust. As magma rises under the mid-ocean ridge, ferromagnetic minerals in the magma become magnetized in the direction of the magma become magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field. When the magma cools and solidifies, the direction and the polarity of the field are preserved in the magnetized volcanic rock. Reversals of the field give rise to a series of magnetic stripes running parallel to the axis of the rift. The oceanic crust thus serves as a magnetic tape recording of the history of the geomagnetic field that can be dated independently; the width of the stripes indicates the rate of the sea-floor spreading.

37. Icebergs

Icebergs are among nature’s most spectacular creations, and yet most people have never seen one. A vague air of mystery envelops them. They come into being ----- somewhere ------in faraway, frigid waters, amid thunderous noise and splashing turbulence, which in most cases no one hears or sees. They exist only a short time and then slowly waste away just as unnoticed.

Objects of sheerest beauty they have been called. Appearing in an endless variety of shapes, they may be dazzlingly white, or they may be glassy blue, green or purple, tinted faintly of in darker hues. They are graceful, stately, inspiring ----- in calm, sunlight seas.

But they are also called frightening and dangerous, and that they are ---- in the night, in the fog, and in storms. Even in clear weather one is wise to stay a safe distance away from them. Most of their bulk is hidden below the water, so their underwater parts may extend out far beyond the visible top. Also, they may roll over unexpectedly, churning the waters around them.

Icebergs are parts of glaciers that break off, drift into the water, float about awhile, and finally melt. Icebergs afloat today are made of snowflakes that have fallen over long ages of time. They embody snows that drifted down hundreds, or many thousands, or in some cases maybe a million years ago. The snows fell in polar regions and on cold mountains, where they melted only a little or not at all, and so collected to great depths over the years and centuries.

As each year’s snow accumulation lay on the surface, evaporation and melting caused the snowflakes slowly to lose their feathery points and become tiny grains of ice. When new snow fell on top of the old, it too turned to icy grains. So blankets of snow and ice grains mounted layer upon layer and were of such great thickness that the weight of the upper layers compressed the lower ones. With time and pressure from above, the many small ice grains joined and changed to larger crystals, and eventually the deeper crystals merged into a solid mass of ice.

38. Topaz

Topaz is a hard, transparent mineral. It is a compound of aluminum, silica, and fluorine. Gem topaz is valuable. Jewelers call this variety of the stone“precious topaz”. The best-known precious topaz gems range in color from rich yellow to light brown or pinkish red. Topaz is one of the hardest gem minerals. In the mineral table of hardness, it has a rating of 8, which means that a knife cannot cut it, and that topaz will scratch quartz.

The golden variety of precious topaz is quite uncommon. Most of the world’s topaz is white or blue. The white and blue crystals of topaz are large, often weighing thousands of carats. For this reason, the value of topaz does not depend so much on its size as it does with diamonds and many other precious stones, where the value increases about four times with each doubling of weight. The value of a topaz is largely determined by its quality. But color is also important: blue topaz, for instance, is often irradiated to deepen and improve its color.

Blue topaz is often sold as aquamarine and a variety of brown quartz is widely sold as topaz. The quartz is much less brilliant and more plentiful than true topaz. Most of it is variety of amethyst: that heat has turned brown.

NOTE:

topaz / 'tэupжz; `topжz/ n (a) [U] transparent yellow mineral黃玉(礦物).

(b) [C] semi-precious gem cut from this黃玉;黃寶石.

39. The Salinity of Ocean Waters

If the salinity of ocean waters is analyzed, it is found to vary only slightly from place to place. Nevertheless, some of these small changes are important. There are three basic processes that cause a change in oceanic salinity. One of these is the subtraction of water from the ocean by means of evaporation--- conversion of liquid water to water vapor. In this manner the salinity is increased, since the salts stay behind. If this is carried to the extreme, of course, white crystals of salt would be left behind.

The opposite of evaporation is precipitation, such as rain, by which water is added to the ocean. Here the ocean is being diluted so that the salinity is decreased. This may occur in areas of high rainfall or in coastal regions where rivers flow into the ocean. Thus salinity may be increased by the subtraction of water by evaporation, or decreased by the addition of fresh water by precipitation or runoff.

Normally, in tropical regions where the sun is very strong, the ocean salinity is somewhat higher than it is in other parts of the world where there is not as much evaporation. Similarly, in coastal regions where rivers dilute the sea, salinity is somewhat lower than in other oceanic areas.

A third process by which salinity may be altered is associated with the formation and melting of sea ice. When sea water is frozen, the dissolved materials are left behind. In this manner, sea water directly materials are left behind. In this manner, sea water directly beneath freshly formed sea ice has a higher salinity than it did before the ice appeared. Of course, when this ice melts, it will tend to decrease the salinity of the surrounding water.

In the Weddell Sea Antarctica, the densest water in the oceans is formed as a result of this freezing process, which increases the salinity of cold water. This heavy water sinks and is found in the deeper portions of the oceans of the world.

NOTE:

salinity / sэ'linэti; sэ`linэti/

n [U] the high salinity of sea water海水的高含鹽量.

à->>saline / 'seilain; US -li:n; `selin/

1.adj [attrib作定語] (fml文) containing salt; salty含鹽的;咸的:

* a saline lake鹽湖* saline springs鹽泉

* saline solution, eg as used for gargling, storing contact lenses, etc鹽溶液(如用于漱喉、存放隱形眼鏡等).

2. n [U] (medical醫) solution of salt and water鹽水.

40. Cohesion-tension Theory

Atmospheric pressure can support a column of water up to 10 meters high. But plants can move water much higher; the sequoia tree can pump water to its very top more than 100 meters above the ground. Until the end of the nineteenth century, the movement of water in trees and other tall plants was a mystery. Some botanists hypothesized that the living cells of plants acted as pumps. But many experiments demonstrated that the stems of plants in which all the cells are killed can still move water to appreciable heights. Other explanations for the movement of water in plants have been based on root pressure, a push on the water from the roots at the bottom of the plant. But root pressure is not nearly great enough to push water to the tops of tall trees. Furthermore, the conifers, which are among the tallest trees, have unusually low root pressures.

If water is not pumped to the top of a tall tree, and if it is not pushed to the top of a tall tree, then we may ask: how does it get there? According to the currently accepted cohesion-tension theory, water is pulled there. The pull on a rising column of water in a plant results from the evaporation of water at the top of the plant. As water is lost from the surface of the leaves, a negative pressure, or tension, is created. The evaporated water is replaced by water moving from inside the plant in unbroken columns that extend from the top of a plant to its roots. The same forces that create surface tension in any sample of water are responsible for the maintenance of these unbroken columns of water. When water is confined in tubes of very small bore, the forces of cohesion (the attraction between water molecules) are so great that the strength of a column of water compares with the strength of a steel wire of the same diameter. This cohesive strength permits columns of water to be pulled to great heights without being broken.

41. American black bears

American black bears appear in a variety of colors despite their name. In the eastern part of their range, most of these brown, red, or even yellow coats. To the north, the black bear is actually gray or white in color. Even in the same litter, both brown and black furred bears may be born.

Black bears are the smallest of all American bears, ranging in length from five to six feet, weighing from three hundred to five hundred pounds Their eyes and ears are small and their eyesight and hearing are not as good as their sense of smell.

Like all bears, the black bear is timid, clumsy, and rarely dangerous , but if attacked, most can climb trees and cover ground at great speeds. When angry or frightened, it is a formidable enemy.

Black bears feed on leaves, herbs. Fruit, berries, insects, fish, and even larger animals. One of the most interesting characteristics of bears, including the black bear, is their winter sleep. Unlike squirrels, woodchucks, and many other woodland animals, bears do not actually hibernate. Although the bear does not during the winter moths, sustaining itself from body fat, its temperature remains almost normal, and it breathes regularly four or five times per minute.

Most black bears live alone, except during mating season. They prefer to live in caves, hollow logs, or dense thickets. A little of one to four cubs is born in January or February after a gestation period of six to nine months, and they remain with their mother until they are fully grown or about one and a half years old. Black bears can live as long as thirty years in the wild , and even longer in game preserves set aside for them.

42. Coal-fired power plants

The invention of the incandescent light bulb by Thomas A. Edison in 1879 created a demand for a cheap, readily available fuel with which to generate large amounts of electric power. Coal seemed to fit the bill, and it fueled the earliest power stations. (which were set up at the end of the nineteenth century by Edison himself). As more power plants were constructed throughout the country, the reliance on coal increased throughout the country, the reliance on coal increased. Since the First World War, coal-fired power plants had a combined in the United States each year. In 1986 such plants had a combined generating capacity of 289,000 megawatts and consumed 83 percent of the nearly 900 million tons of coal mined in the country that year. Given the uncertainty in the future growth of the nearly 900 million tons of coal mined in the country that year. Given the uncertainty in the future growth of nuclear power and in the supply of oil and natural gas, coal-fired power plants could well provide up to 70 percent of the electric power in the United States by the end of the century.

Yet, in spite of the fact that coal has long been a source of electricity and may remain on for many years(coal represents about 80 percent of United States fossil-fuel reserves), it has actually never been the most desirable fossil fuel for power plants. Coal contains less energy per unit of weight than weight than natural gas or oil; it is difficult to transport, and it is associated with a host of environmental issues, among them acid rain. Since the late 1960’s problems of emission control and waste disposal have sharply reduced the appeal of coal-fired power plants. The cost of ameliorating these environment problems along with the rising cost of building a facility as large and complex as a coal-fired power plant, have also made such plants less attractive from a purely economic perspective.

Changes in the technological base of coal-fired power plants could restore their attractiveness, however. Whereas some of these changes are intended mainly to increase the productivity of existing plants, completely new technologies for burning coal cleanly are also being developed.

43. Statistics

There were two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical methods. Statistics had a mother who was dedicated to keeping orderly records of government units (states and statistics come from the same Latin root status) and a gentlemanly gambling father who relied on mathematics to increase his skill at playing the odds in games of chance. The influence of the mother on the offspring, statistics, is represented by counting, measuring, describing, tabulating, ordering, and the taking of censuses—all of which led to modern descriptive statistics. From the influence of the father came modern inferential statistics, which is based squarely on theories of probability.

Describing collections involves tabulating, depicting and describing collections of data. These data may be quantitative such as measures of height, intelligence or grade level------variables that are characterized by an underlying continuum---or the data may represent qualitative variables, such as sex, college major or personality type. Large masses of data must generally undergo a process of summarization or reduction before they are comprehensible. Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data.

Inferential statistics is a formalized body of methods for solving another class of problems that present great of problems characteristically involves attempts to make predictions using a sample of observations. For example, a school superintendent wishes to determine the proportion of children in a large school system who come to school without breakfast, have been vaccinated for flu, or whatever. Having a little knowledge of statistics, the superintendent would know that it is unnecessary and inefficient to question each child: the proportion for the sample of as few as 100 children. Thus , the purpose of inferential statistics is to predict or estimate characteristics of a population from a knowledge of the characteristics of only a sample of the population.

44. Obtaining Fresh water from icebergs

The concept of obtaining fresh water from icebergs that are towed to populated areas and arid regions of the world was once treated as a joke more appropriate to cartoons than real life. But now it is being considered quite seriously by many nations, especially since scientists have warned that the human race will outgrow its fresh water supply faster than it runs out of food.

Glaciers are a possible source of fresh water that has been overlooked until recently. Three-quarters of the Earth’s fresh water supply is still tied up in glacial ice, a reservoir of untapped fresh water so immense that it could sustain all the rivers of the world for 1,000 years. Floating on the oceans every year are 7,659 trillion metric tons of ice encased in 10000 icebergs that break away from the polar ice caps, more than ninety percent of them from Antarctica.

Huge glaciers that stretch over the shallow continental shelf give birth to icebergs throughout the year. Icebergs are not like sea ice, which is formed when the sea itself freezes, rather, they are formed entirely on land, breaking off when glaciers spread over the sea. As they drift away from the polar region, icebergs sometimes move mysteriously in a direction opposite to the wind, pulled by subsurface currents. Because they melt more slowly than smaller pieces of ice, icebergs have been known to drift as far north as 35 degrees south of the equator in the Atlantic Ocean. To corral them and steer them to parts of the world where they are needed would not be too difficult.

The difficulty arises in other technical matters, such as the prevention of rapid melting in warmer climates and the funneling of fresh water to shore in great volume. But even if the icebergs lost half of their volume in towing, the water they could provide would be far cheaper than that produced by desalinization, or removing salt from water.

45. The source of Energy

A summary of the physical and chemical nature of life must begin, not on the Earth, but in the Sun; in fact, at the Sun’s very center. It is here that is to be found the source of the energy that the Sun constantly pours out into space as light and heat. This energy is librated at the center of the Sun as billions upon billions of nuclei of hydrogen atoms collide with each other and fuse together to form nuclei of helium, and in doing so, release some of the energy that is stored in the nuclei of atoms. The output of light and heat of the Sun requires that some 600 million tons of hydrogen be converted into helium in the Sun every second. This the Sun has been doing for several thousands of millions of year.

The nuclear energy is released at the Sun’s center as high-energy gamma radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation like light and radio waves, only of very much shorter wavelength. This gamma radiation is absorbed by atoms inside the Sun to be reemitted at slightly longer wavelengths. This radiation , in its turn is absorbed and reemitted. As the energy filters through the layers of the solar interior, it passes through the X-ray part of the spectrum eventually becoming light. At this stage, it has reached what we call the solar surface, and can escape into space without being absorbed further by solar atoms. A very small fraction of the Sun’s light and heat is emitted in such directions that after passing unhindered through interplanetary space, it hits the Earth.

46. Vision

Human vision like that of other primates has evolved in an arboreal environment. In the dense complex world of a tropical forest, it is more important to see well that to develop an acute sense of smell. In the course of evolution members of the primate line have acquired large eyes while the snout has shrunk to give the eye an unimpeded view. Of mammals only humans and some primates enjoy color vision. The red flag is black to the bull. Horses live in a monochrome world .light visible to human eyes however occupies only a very narrow band in the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to humans though ants and honeybees are sensitive to them. Humans though ants and honeybees are sensitive to them. Humans have no direct perception of infrared rays unlike the rattlesnake which has receptors tuned into wavelengths longer than 0.7 micron. The world would look eerily different if human eyes were sensitive to infrared radiation. Then instead of the darkness of night, we would be able to move easily in a strange shadowless world where objects glowed with varying degrees of intensity. But human eyes excel in other ways. They are in fact remarkably discerning in color gradation. The color sensitivity of normal human vision is rarely surpassed even by sophisticated technical devices.

47. Folk Cultures

A folk culture is a small isolated, cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race with a strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals. Order is maintained through sanctions based in the religion or family and interpersonal. Relationships are strong. Tradition is paramount, and change comes infrequently and slowly. There is relatively little division of labor into specialized duties. Rather, each person is expected to perform a great variety of tasks, though duties may differ between the sexes. Most goods are handmade and subsistence economy prevails. Individualism is weakly developed in folk cultures as are social classes. Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as the United States and Canada. Perhaps the nearest modern equivalent in Anglo America is the Amish, a German American farming sect that largely renounces the products and labor saving devices of the industrial age. In Amish areas, horse drawn buggies still serve as a local transportation device and the faithful are not permitted to own automobiles. The Amish’s central religious concept of Demut“humility”, clearly reflects the weakness of individualism and social class so typical of folk cultures and there is a corresponding strength of Amish group identity. Rarely do the Amish marry outside their sect. The religion, a variety of the Mennonite faith, provides the principal mechanism for maintaining order.

By contrast a popular culture is a large heterogeneous group often highly individualistic and a pronounced many specialized professions. Secular institutions of control such as the police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order, and a money-based economy prevails. Because of these contrasts,“popular”may be viewed as clearly different from“folk”. The popular is replacing the folk in industrialized countries and in many developing nations. Folk-made objects give way to their popular equivalent, usually because the popular item is more quickly or cheaply produced, is easier or time saving to use or leads more prestige to the owner.

48. Bacteria

Bacteria are extremely small living things. While we measure our own sizes in inches or centimeters, bacterial size is measured in microns. One micron is a thousandth of a millimeter: a pinhead is about a millimeter across. Rod-shaped bacteria are usually from two to four microns long, while rounded ones are generally one micron in diameter. Thus if you enlarged a rounded bacterium a thousand times, it would be just about the size of a pinhead. An adult human magnified by the same amount would be over a mile(1.6 kilometer) tall.

Even with an ordinary microscope, you must look closely to see bacteria. Using a magnification of 100 times, one finds that bacteria are barely visible as tiny rods or dots. One cannot make out anything of their structure. Using special stains, one can see that some bacteria have attached to them wavy-looking“hairs”called flagella. Others have only one flagellum. The flagella rotate, pushing the bacteria through the water. Many bacteria lack flagella and cannot move about by their own power, while others can glide along over surfaces by some little-understood mechanism.

From the bacteria point of view, the world is a very different place from what it is to humans. To a bacterium water is as thick as molasses is to us. Bacteria are so small that they are influenced by the movements of the chemical molecules around them. Bacteria under the microscope, even those with no flagella, often bounce about in the water. This is because they collide with the watery molecules and are pushed this way and that. Molecules move so rapidly that within a tenth of a second the molecules around a bacteria have all been replaced by new ones; even bacteria without flagella are thus constantly exposed to a changing environment.

49. Sleep

Sleet is part of a person’s daily activity cycle. There are several different stages of sleep, and they too occur in cycles. If you are an average sleeper, your sleep cycle is as follows. When you fist drift off into slumber, your eyes will roll about a bit, you temperature will drop slightly, your muscles will relax, and your breathing well slow and become quite regular. Your brain waves slow and become quite regular. Your brain waves slow down a bit too, with the alpha rhythm of rather fast waves 1 sleep. For the next half hour or so, as you relax more and more, you will drift down through stage 2 and stage 3 sleep. The lower your stage of sleep. slower your brain waves will be. Then about 40to 69 minutes after you lose consciousness you will have reached the deepest sleep of all. Your brain will show the large slow waves that are known as the delta rhythm. This is stage 4 sleep.

You do not remain at this deep fourth stage all night long, but instead about 80 minutes after you fall into slumber, your brain activity level will increase again slightly. The delta rhythm will disappear, to be replaced by the activity pattern of brain waves. Your eyes will begin to dart around under your closed eyelids as if you were looking at something occurring in front of you. This period of rapid eye movement lasts for some 8 to 15 minutes and is called REM sleep. It is during REM sleep period, your body will soon relax again, your breathing will slip gently back from stage 1 to stage 4 sleep----only to rise once again to the surface of near consciousness some 80 minutes later.

50. Cells and Temperature

Cells cannot remain alive outside certain limits of temperature and much narrower limits mark the boundaries of effective functioning. Enzyme systems of mammals and birds are most efficient only within a narrow range around 37C;a departure of a few degrees from this value seriously impairs their functioning. Even though cells can survive wider fluctuations the integrated actions of bodily systems are impaired. Other animals have a wider tolerance for changes of bodily temperature.

For centuries it has been recognized that mammals and birds differ from other animals in the way they regulate body temperature. Ways of characterizing the difference have become more accurate and meaningful over time, but popular terminology still reflects the old division into“warm-blooded”and“cold-blooded”species; warm-blooded included mammals and birds whereas all other creatures were considered cold-blooded. As more species were studied, it became evident that this classification was inadequate. A fence lizard or a desert iguana—each cold-blooded----usually has a body temperature only a degree or two below that of humans and so is not cold. Therefore the next distinction was made between animals that maintain a constant body temperature, called home0therms, and those whose body temperature varies with their environments, called poikilotherms. But this classification also proved inadequate, because among mammals there are many that vary their body temperatures during hibernation. Furthermore, many invertebrates that live in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the chill of the deep water, and their body temperatures remain constant.

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